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Title: The impacts of D-2 ballast water management standard on stakeholders (environmental impact)
Authors: Tan, Winnie Jia Wei
Keywords: Engineering::Maritime studies
Issue Date: 2022
Publisher: Nanyang Technological University
Source: Tan, W. J. W. (2022). The impacts of D-2 ballast water management standard on stakeholders (environmental impact). Final Year Project (FYP), Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
Abstract: The widespread of Harmful Aquatic Organisms and Pathogens (HAOP) has unavoidably become one of the most serious hazards to the environment and marine ecosystem. As such, the Ballast Water Management Convention, was adopted by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) to reduce the detrimental effects of ballast water and all vessels are required to adhere to the regulations D-1 and D-2 standard. It is mandatory for all vessels to comply with D-2 standards before 8 September 2024. Hence, it is important to study the impacts of complying with D-2 standards especially on the stakeholders who would be directly affected. The research is split into three aspects, technical, environmental and social-wellbeing impact. The first work package covers the technical impacts of D-2 standard on stakeholders, focusing on technical implications of complying with the D-2 standard. The third work package covers the social-wellbeing impact of D-2 standard with focus on mainly the implications to the seafarers. The second work package on the other hand, which is this research paper will be on the environmental impact of D-2 standard, focusing on the post-environmental impact as a result of the use of Ballast Water Treatment Systems (BTWS) that uses active substances. The first work package would be covered by Tan Shi Hui Celeste while the third work package would be covered by Chew Zi Xin in separate publications. This paper will discuss the negative impacts of hazardous Disinfection By-Products (DBPs) as a result of the D-2 standard that involve the use of BWTS with active substances. The study would investigate the post-environmental impact of these DBPs and its implications on the key stakeholders. The findings and analysis gathered would aid in determining the effectiveness of the D-2 standard and if there is a need for any new regulatory amendments. One of the key takeaways from this report would be the complications of the D-2 standard which affects the efficacy of the BWM convention and further highlight the pressing need to address the complications revolving around the approval process of BTWS that uses active substances. Through the primary and secondary data collected, this study found that the approach towards the discharge of DBPs needs to be enhanced and the use of BWTS will continue to result in negative impacts on the environment unless the approval process is strengthened. Thus, this paper has included recommendations such as the use of ship-to-ship transfer of treated ballast water as an alternative to the D-2 standard as well as narrowing down the number of type-approved BWTS to reduce the complications and possibly prevent the formation of DBPs from becoming a serious problem in the future when all vessels are D-2 compliant.
Schools: School of Civil and Environmental Engineering 
Fulltext Permission: restricted
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
Appears in Collections:CEE Student Reports (FYP/IA/PA/PI)

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