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Title: Characterization and application of natural and recombinant butelase-1 to improve industrial enzymes by end-to-end circularization
Authors: Hemu, Xinya
Zhang, Xiaohong
Nguyen, Giang K. T.
To, Janet
Serra, Aida
Loo, Shining
Sze, Siu Kwan
Liu, Chuan-Fa
Tam, James P.
Keywords: Science::Biological sciences
Issue Date: 2021
Source: Hemu, X., Zhang, X., Nguyen, G. K. T., To, J., Serra, A., Loo, S., Sze, S. K., Liu, C. & Tam, J. P. (2021). Characterization and application of natural and recombinant butelase-1 to improve industrial enzymes by end-to-end circularization. RSC Advances, 11(37), 23105-23112.
Project: MOE2016-T3-1-003 
Journal: RSC Advances 
Abstract: Butelase-1, an asparaginyl endopeptidase or legumain, is the prototypical and fastest known Asn/Asp-specific peptide ligase. It is highly useful for engineering and macrocyclization of peptides and proteins. However, certain biochemical properties and applications of naturally occurring and recombinant butelase-1 remain unexplored. Here we report methods to increase the yield of natural and bacterial expressed recombinant butelase-1 and how they can be used to improve the stability and activity of two important industrial enzymes, lipase and phytase, by end-to-end circularization. First, the yield of natural butelase-1 was increased 3-fold to 15 mg kg(-1) by determining its highest distribution which is found in young tissues, such as shoots. The yield of recombinantly-produced soluble butelase-1 was improved by promoting cytoplasmic disulfide folding, codon changes, and truncation of the N-terminal pro-domain. Natural and recombinant butelase-1 displayed similar ligase activity, physical stability, and salt tolerance. Furthermore, the processing and glycosylation sites of natural and recombinant butelase-1 were determined by proteomic analysis. Storage conditions for both forms of butelase-1, frozen or lyophilized, were also optimized. Cyclization of lipase and phytase mediated by either soluble or immobilized butelase-1 was highly efficient and simple, and resulted in increased thermal stability and enhanced enzymatic activity. Overall, improved production of butelase-1 can be exploited to improve the biocatalytic efficacy of lipase and phytase by end-to-end cyclization. In turn, ligase-improved enzymes could be a general and environmentally friendly strategy for producing more stable and efficient industrial enzymes.
ISSN: 2046-2069
DOI: 10.1039/D1RA03763C
Schools: School of Biological Sciences 
Rights: © 2021 The Author(s). Published by the Royal Society of Chemistry. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported Licence.
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
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