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Title: The millennium eruption of Changbaishan Tianchi Volcano is VEI 6, not 7
Authors: Yang, Qingyuan
Jenkins, Susanna F.
Lerner, Geoffrey A.
Li, Weiran
Suzuki, Takehiko
McLean, Danielle
Derkachev, A. N.
Utkin, I.V.
Wei, Haiquan
Xu, Jiandong
Pan, Bo
Keywords: Science::Geology
Issue Date: 2021
Source: Yang, Q., Jenkins, S. F., Lerner, G. A., Li, W., Suzuki, T., McLean, D., Derkachev, A. N., Utkin, I., Wei, H., Xu, J. & Pan, B. (2021). The millennium eruption of Changbaishan Tianchi Volcano is VEI 6, not 7. Bulletin of Volcanology, 83(11).
Project: NRF2018NRF-NSFC003ES-010 
Journal: Bulletin of Volcanology 
Abstract: The Millennium Eruption (AD 946–947) of Changbaishan Tianchi Volcano is one of the largest known eruptions in recorded history. With the help of previously published isopachs and distal ash thicknesses, we re-calculate the bulk volume of its distal eruptive product, the B-Tm ash, as 27–62 km3 and the total eruption volume as 40–98 km3. The updated volume estimates are around half of those estimated by previous studies of this seminal eruption. Our work shows that the Millennium Eruption is a VEI-6 eruption, rather than VEI-7 as previously envisaged, and its magnitude is also lower than previously thought. This has implications for regional frequency-magnitude relationships and may also partially explain the limited regional, rather than global, climatic effects of the Millennium Eruption.
ISSN: 0258-8900
DOI: 10.1007/s00445-021-01487-8
Schools: Asian School of the Environment 
Research Centres: Earth Observatory of Singapore 
Rights: © 2021 The Authors. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons. org/licenses/by/4.0/.
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
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