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Title: Race, gender, and the U.S. presidency: a comparison of implicit and explicit biases in the electorate
Authors: Calvert, Gemma Anne 
Evans, Geoffrey
Pathak, Abhishek
Keywords: Social sciences::Political science
Issue Date: 2022
Source: Calvert, G. A., Evans, G. & Pathak, A. (2022). Race, gender, and the U.S. presidency: a comparison of implicit and explicit biases in the electorate. Behavioral Sciences, 12(1), 17-.
Journal: Behavioral Sciences
Abstract: Recent U.S. elections have witnessed the Democrats nominating both black and female presidential candidates, as well as a black and female vice president. The increasing diversity of the U.S. political elite heightens the importance of understanding the psychological factors influencing voter support for, or opposition to, candidates of different races and genders. In this study, we investigated the relative strength of the implicit biases for and against hypothetical presidential candidates that varied by gender and race, using an evaluative priming paradigm on a broadly representative sample of U.S. citizens (n = 1076). Our main research question is: Do measures of implicit racial and gender biases predict political attitudes and voting better than measures of explicit prejudice? We find that measures of implicit bias are less strongly associated with political attitudes and voting than are explicit measures of sexist attitudes and modern racism. Moreover, once demographic characteristics and explicit prejudice are controlled statistically, measures of implicit bias provide little incremental predictive validity. Overall, explicit prejudice has a far stronger association with political preferences than does implicit bias.
ISSN: 2076-328X
DOI: 10.3390/bs12010017
Schools: Nanyang Business School 
Rights: © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
Appears in Collections:NBS Journal Articles

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