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Title: Long-distance repression by human silencers: chromatin interactions and phase separation in silencers
Authors: Zhang, Ying
See, Yi Xiang
Tergaonkar, Vinay
Fullwood, Melissa Jane
Keywords: Science::Biological sciences
Issue Date: 2022
Source: Zhang, Y., See, Y. X., Tergaonkar, V. & Fullwood, M. J. (2022). Long-distance repression by human silencers: chromatin interactions and phase separation in silencers. Cells, 11(9), 1560-.
Project: MOE2014-T3-1-006
Journal: Cells
Abstract: Three-dimensional genome organization represents an additional layer in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Active transcription controlled by enhancers or super-enhancers has been extensively studied. Enhancers or super-enhancers can recruit activators or co-activators to activate target gene expression through long-range chromatin interactions. Chromatin interactions and phase separation play important roles in terms of enhancer or super-enhancer functioning. Silencers are another major type of cis-regulatory element that can mediate gene regulation by turning off or reducing gene expression. However, compared to active transcription, silencer studies are still in their infancy. This review covers the current knowledge of human silencers, especially the roles of chromatin interactions and phase separation in silencers. This review also proposes future directions for human silencer studies.
ISSN: 2073-4409
DOI: 10.3390/cells11091560
Schools: School of Biological Sciences 
Organisations: National University of Singapore
Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, A*STAR
Rights: © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// 4.0/).
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
Appears in Collections:SBS Journal Articles

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