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dc.contributor.authorXiao, Kekeen_US
dc.contributor.authorMaspolim, Yoganandaen_US
dc.contributor.authorZhou, Yanen_US
dc.contributor.authorGuo, Chenghongen_US
dc.contributor.authorNg, Wun Jernen_US
dc.identifier.citationXiao, K., Maspolim, Y., Zhou, Y., Guo, C. & Ng, W. J. (2022). Effect of sodium on methanogens in a two-stage anaerobic system. Applied Sciences, 12(3), 956-.
dc.description.abstractThis study evaluated the effects of sodium on anaerobic biomass from the second-stage reactor of a two-stage anaerobic digester. The results indicated that methanogens showed a rela-tively high sodium tolerance of 2.4 g Na+ L−1 . Microbial community analysis showed that viable Methanomicrobiales was the most abundant population by a combined propidium monoazide cross-linking quantitative polymerase chain reaction technique. There was a population shift towards higher abundance of Thermotoga (0.02%), Clostridium (2.50%) and Methanoculleus (13.80%). Biomass activity in relation to increased sodium concentrations was investigated with the adenosine triphos-phate test coupled with extracellular polymeric substances measurement. The results showed biomass activity decreased from 33 to 16 µg g−1 volatile suspended solids as sodium concentrations increased from 1.3 to 9.1 g Na+ L−1 . Higher EPS production, particularly a greater predominance of carbo-hydrates, was stimulated by higher sodium concentrations. This study provides insights into the superiority of sodium tolerance of two-stage anaerobic digester in compared with a single-stage anaerobic system.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Research Foundation (NRF)en_US
dc.relation.ispartofApplied Sciencesen_US
dc.rights© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// 4.0/).en_US
dc.subjectEngineering::Civil engineeringen_US
dc.titleEffect of sodium on methanogens in a two-stage anaerobic systemen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Civil and Environmental Engineeringen_US
dc.contributor.researchNanyang Environment and Water Research Instituteen_US
dc.contributor.researchAdvanced Environmental Biotechnology Centre (AEBC)en_US
dc.description.versionPublished versionen_US
dc.subject.keywordsTwo-Stage Anaerobic Digesteren_US
dc.description.acknowledgementThe authors would like to thank the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 52170133). The authors would also like to thank the Singapore National Research Foundation for providing funding for the project “Wastewater Treatment Plants as Urban Eco Power Stations”.en_US
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