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Title: Non-markovian momentum computing: thermodynamically efficient and computation universal
Authors: Ray, Kyle J.
Boyd, Alexander B.
Wimsatt, Gregory W.
Crutchfield, James P.
Keywords: Science::Physics
Issue Date: 2021
Source: Ray, K. J., Boyd, A. B., Wimsatt, G. W. & Crutchfield, J. P. (2021). Non-markovian momentum computing: thermodynamically efficient and computation universal. Physical Review Research, 3(2), 023164-1-023164-7.
Journal: Physical Review Research 
Abstract: Practical, useful computations are instantiated via physical processes. Information must be stored and updated within a system’s configurations, whose energetics determine a computation’s cost. To describe thermodynamic and biological information processing, a growing body of results embraces rate equations as the underlying mechanics of computation. Strictly applying these continuous-time stochastic Markov dynamics, however, precludes a universe of natural computing. Within this framework, operations as simple as a NOT gate (flipping a bit) and swapping two bits, and swapping bits are inaccessible. We show that expanding the toolset to continuous time hidden Markov dynamics substantially removes the constraints, by allowing information to be stored in a system’s latent states. We demonstrate this by simulating computations that are impossible to implement without hidden states. We design and analyze a thermodynamically costless bit flip, providing a counterexample to rate equation modeling. We generalize this to a costless Fredkin gate—a key operation in reversible computing that is Turing complete (computation universal). Going beyond rate-equation dynamics is not only possible but also necessary if stochastic thermodynamics is to become part of the paradigm for physical information processing.
ISSN: 2643-1564
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevResearch.3.023164
Schools: School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences 
Research Centres: Complexity Institute 
Rights: © 2021 The Authors. Published by the American Physical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article’s title, journal citation, and DOI.
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
Appears in Collections:SPMS Journal Articles

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