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Title: Advancing research to eliminate mental illness stigma: an interventional study to improve community attitudes towards depression among university students in Singapore
Authors: Goh, Janrius Chong Min
Shahwan, Shazana
Lau, Jue Hua
Ong, Wei Jie
Tan, Gregory Tee Hng
Samari, Ellaisha
Kwok, Kian Woon
Subramaniam, Mythily
Chong, Siow Ann
Keywords: Social sciences::Sociology
Issue Date: 2021
Source: Goh, J. C. M., Shahwan, S., Lau, J. H., Ong, W. J., Tan, G. T. H., Samari, E., Kwok, K. W., Subramaniam, M. & Chong, S. A. (2021). Advancing research to eliminate mental illness stigma: an interventional study to improve community attitudes towards depression among university students in Singapore. BMC Psychiatry, 21(1), 108-.
Project: 2016/11/051 
Journal: BMC Psychiatry 
Abstract: Background: After decades of anti-stigma initiatives, the Advancing Research To Eliminate Mental Illness Stigma (ARTEMIS) intervention study is one of the first in Singapore to evaluate the effects of an anti-stigma intervention on attitudes towards depression in university students. Methods: 390 university students from a local university in Singapore were voluntarily recruited for the study. The ARTEMIS intervention comprises an educational and social contact component, as well as a question and answer (Q&A) session with experts in the area of mental health. The Community Attitudes towards Mental Illness (CAMI) scale was administered at baseline, post-intervention and at 3-months follow-up. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted. Results: The CFA identified a 3-factor model for the CAMI with a decent fit (RMSEA = 0.06, CFI = 0.93, TLI = 0.93, SRMR = 0.06). Favourable shifts in attitudes across the factors were observed immediately after the intervention (p < 0.001). Gender (β = − 1.19, 95% CI: − 2.10, − 0.27, p = 0.01) and nationality (β = − 1.23, 95% CI: − 2.35, − 0.11, p = 0.03) were identified as significant correlates for the community mental health ideology (CMHI) factor. Linear effects indicated that having a close social contact with mental illness observed a smaller decrease in authoritarianism scores from pre- to post-intervention (β = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.18, 1.53, p = 0.01); whereas quadratic effects found a greater decrease in scores from post-intervention to after 3-months for benevolence (β = − 0.34, 95% CI: − 0.52, − 0.16, p < 0.001) and CMHI (β = − 0.22, 95% CI: − 0.45, − 0.002, p = 0.048). Conclusion: The anti-stigma intervention shows promising short-term results across the CAMI dimensions even after adjusting for sociodemographic correlates. However, the intervention did not observe the sustained attitude shifts after 3-months. Recommendations for future anti-stigma interventions were also considered.
ISSN: 1471-244X
DOI: 10.1186/s12888-021-03106-4
Schools: School of Social Sciences 
Rights: © 2021 The Authors. Open Access. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
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