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Title: Associations of living arrangements with symptoms and functioning in schizophrenia
Authors: Ang, Mei San
Rekhi, Gurpreet
Lee, Jimmy
Keywords: Science::Medicine
Issue Date: 2021
Source: Ang, M. S., Rekhi, G. & Lee, J. (2021). Associations of living arrangements with symptoms and functioning in schizophrenia. BMC Psychiatry, 21(1), 497-.
Project: NMRC/CG/004/2013 
Journal: BMC Psychiatry 
Abstract: Background: Living arrangements and accommodation are closely related, but no study had concurrently investigated their associations with outcomes in schizophrenia. This study seeks to describe and compare sociodemographic, clinical and functioning profiles of people with schizophrenia in different living arrangements and accommodation, and to examine the associations of living arrangements and accommodation with symptomatic remission and functioning. Methods: Community dwelling outpatients with schizophrenia (n = 276) were inquired on living arrangements, accommodation, socio-demographics and assessed on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Social and Occupational Functioning Scale (SOFAS). Socio-demographics, symptoms and functioning of outpatients in different living arrangements and accommodation were compared. Symptomatic remission was investigated using logistic regression with living arrangements, socio-demographics and clinical variables as independent variables. Functioning was investigated using multiple regression with the same set of independent variables and the addition of PANSS factors. The same analyses were conducted with accommodation as independent variable. Results: 185 (67.03%) participants lived with family and 195 (70.65%) participants lived in owned accommodation. People living with their spouses had significantly higher SOFAS, lower PANSS Total and PANSS Positive than people living with family, independently, or in rehabilitation centres. They also had lower PANSS Negative than people living with family and a higher likelihood to have achieved symptomatic remission. Types of accommodation was not associated with symptoms, symptomatic remission, and functioning. Conclusion: Living arrangements, but not types of accommodation, were associated with symptoms and functioning in schizophrenia. Family education and support is important to help maintain a conducive environment for people with schizophrenia. People living independently may need more support.
ISSN: 1471-244X
DOI: 10.1186/s12888-021-03488-5
Schools: Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine (LKCMedicine) 
Organisations: Institute of Mental Health
Rights: © 2021 The Authors. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
Appears in Collections:LKCMedicine Journal Articles

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