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Title: Acidified paper substrates for microfluidic solution sampling integrated with potentiometric sensors for determination of heavy metals
Authors: Ding, Ruiyu
Cheong, Yi Heng
Zhao, Ke
Lisak, Grzegorz
Keywords: Engineering::Environmental engineering
Issue Date: 2021
Source: Ding, R., Cheong, Y. H., Zhao, K. & Lisak, G. (2021). Acidified paper substrates for microfluidic solution sampling integrated with potentiometric sensors for determination of heavy metals. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 347, 130567-.
Journal: Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical
Abstract: To address analysis of heavy metals in samples containing low volumes and/or high solid-to-liquid contents, microfluidic paper-based solution sampling coupled with Pb2+-ISEs was investigated. The acidification of paper substrates prior to their use was found effective at eliminating the otherwise observed super-Nernstian response of Pb2+-ISEs. Acidified paper substrates (at different pH) were evaluated and through 3D approximate (concentration-EMF-pH) analyses of the Pb2+-ISEs responses coupled with acidified paper substrates, the acceptable operational pH range (for paper substrate containing sample solution) of the potentiometric sensors was found to be between 3–4. Furthermore, to simplify the analytical protocol of heavy metal sensing using Pb2+-ISEs coupled with microfluidic paper-based solution sampling, a colour-coded matching graph was proposed to match the appropriate acidified paper substrate to the pH of the unbuffered sample solution. Such an approach was used for determination of Pb2+ in various complex environmental samples with small volumes of solution and/or high solid-to-liquid ratios, such as wet soil, street runoff, chemical spillage and plant dew. Although the samples were characterized with high ionic complexity, determinations by potentiometry and ICP-OES were found to be comparable, which validates the use of acidified paper substrates in reliable determination of lead(II) in complex sample matrices.
ISSN: 0925-4005
DOI: 10.1016/j.snb.2021.130567
Schools: School of Civil and Environmental Engineering 
Research Centres: Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute 
Residues and Resource Reclamation Centre 
Rights: © 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fulltext Permission: none
Fulltext Availability: No Fulltext
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