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Title: Effect of the fibre length on the mechanical anisotropy of glass fibre–reinforced polymer composites printed by Multi Jet Fusion
Authors: Liu, Xiaojiang
Tey, Wei Shian
Tan, Pengfei
Leong, Kah Kit
Chen, Jiayao
Tian, Yujia
Ong, Adrian
Zhao, Lihua
Zhou, Kun
Keywords: Engineering::Mechanical engineering
Issue Date: 2022
Source: Liu, X., Tey, W. S., Tan, P., Leong, K. K., Chen, J., Tian, Y., Ong, A., Zhao, L. & Zhou, K. (2022). Effect of the fibre length on the mechanical anisotropy of glass fibre–reinforced polymer composites printed by Multi Jet Fusion. Virtual and Physical Prototyping, 17(3), 734-748.
Project: I1801E0028 
Journal: Virtual and Physical Prototyping 
Abstract: Mechanical anisotropy greatly influences the applications of materials printed by additive manufacturing techniques such as Multi Jet Fusion (MJF) and selective laser sintering. However, the mechanical anisotropy of MJF-printed fibre–reinforced polymer composites has not been well understood. In this work, the effect of the fibre length on the mechanical performance of MJF-printed glass fibre–reinforced polyamide 12 (GF/PA12) composites is systematically investigated. Both experimental and simulation results confirm that longer fibres are in favour of fibre alignment in the powder spreading direction. The composite parts with longer fibres exhibit higher porosity. When GFs with an average length of 226 μm are added, the ultimate tensile strength and tensile modulus of the composites measured in the powder bed spreading direction are remarkably improved by 51% and 326%, respectively, as compared with those of neat PA12 specimens. This work provides guidance for the printing of other high-strength fibre–reinforced polymer composites.
ISSN: 1745-2759
DOI: 10.1080/17452759.2022.2059638
Schools: School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering 
Research Centres: Singapore Centre for 3D Printing 
HP-NTU Digital Manufacturing Corporate Lab
Rights: © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License (, which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and is not altered, transformed, or built upon in any way.
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
Appears in Collections:MAE Journal Articles
SC3DP Journal Articles

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