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dc.contributor.authorGao, Shuboen_US
dc.contributor.authorLiu, Ruiliangen_US
dc.contributor.authorHuang, Ruien_US
dc.contributor.authorSong, Xuen_US
dc.contributor.authorSeita, Matteoen_US
dc.identifier.citationGao, S., Liu, R., Huang, R., Song, X. & Seita, M. (2022). A hybrid directed energy deposition process to manipulate microstructure and properties of austenitic stainless steel. Materials & Design, 213, 110360-.
dc.description.abstractOwing to the relatively lower dimensional accuracy and poorer surface finish compared to other additive manufacturing (AM) technologies, directed energy deposition (DED) yields parts that often require extensive post-processing. Thus, it is well suited to be combined with subtractive or deformation processes into hybrid manufacturing strategies, which may enable microstructure engineering of near-net-shape parts directly upon production. In this work, we use a custom-made machine that combines DED and single point incremental forming (SPIF) processes to produce samples of stainless steel 316L which are amenable to undergo recrystallization upon heat treatment. After recrystallization, the microstructure exhibits a high density of twin boundaries, which are known to enhance the physical and mechanical properties of alloys. We investigate how different SPIF parameters affect the extent of recrystallization and find that our strategy may be used to produce both gradient and “sandwich” microstructures, which integrate dissimilar grain boundary character distributions and grain structures. We assess the corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of such samples and discuss the resulting performance enhancement. Our results showcase new opportunities for microstructure engineering of DED components and lay the groundwork for the design of AM processes that enable grain boundary engineering of metal alloys.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Research Foundation (NRF)en_US
dc.relation.ispartofMaterials & Designen_US
dc.rights© 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (
dc.subjectEngineering::Mechanical engineeringen_US
dc.titleA hybrid directed energy deposition process to manipulate microstructure and properties of austenitic stainless steelen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineeringen_US
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Materials Science and Engineeringen_US
dc.contributor.researchSingapore Institute of Manufacturing Technologyen_US
dc.contributor.researchSingapore Centre for Environmental Life Sciences and Engineering (SCELSE)en_US
dc.description.versionPublished versionen_US
dc.subject.keywordsDirected Energy Depositionen_US
dc.subject.keywordsSingle Point Incremental Formingen_US
dc.description.acknowledgementThis work was supported by the National Research Foundation (NRF) Singapore, under the NRF Fellowship programme (NRF-NRFF2018-05).en_US
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