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Title: A hybrid directed energy deposition process to manipulate microstructure and properties of austenitic stainless steel
Authors: Gao, Shubo
Liu, Ruiliang
Huang, Rui
Song, Xu
Seita, Matteo
Keywords: Engineering::Mechanical engineering
Issue Date: 2022
Source: Gao, S., Liu, R., Huang, R., Song, X. & Seita, M. (2022). A hybrid directed energy deposition process to manipulate microstructure and properties of austenitic stainless steel. Materials & Design, 213, 110360-.
Project: NRF-NRFF2018-05 
Journal: Materials & Design 
Abstract: Owing to the relatively lower dimensional accuracy and poorer surface finish compared to other additive manufacturing (AM) technologies, directed energy deposition (DED) yields parts that often require extensive post-processing. Thus, it is well suited to be combined with subtractive or deformation processes into hybrid manufacturing strategies, which may enable microstructure engineering of near-net-shape parts directly upon production. In this work, we use a custom-made machine that combines DED and single point incremental forming (SPIF) processes to produce samples of stainless steel 316L which are amenable to undergo recrystallization upon heat treatment. After recrystallization, the microstructure exhibits a high density of twin boundaries, which are known to enhance the physical and mechanical properties of alloys. We investigate how different SPIF parameters affect the extent of recrystallization and find that our strategy may be used to produce both gradient and “sandwich” microstructures, which integrate dissimilar grain boundary character distributions and grain structures. We assess the corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of such samples and discuss the resulting performance enhancement. Our results showcase new opportunities for microstructure engineering of DED components and lay the groundwork for the design of AM processes that enable grain boundary engineering of metal alloys.
ISSN: 0261-3069
DOI: 10.1016/j.matdes.2021.110360
Schools: School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering 
School of Materials Science and Engineering 
Research Centres: Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology 
Singapore Centre for Environmental Life Sciences and Engineering (SCELSE) 
Rights: © 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
Appears in Collections:MAE Journal Articles
MSE Journal Articles
SCELSE Journal Articles
SIMTech Journal Articles

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