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Title: A review on spacers and membranes: conventional or hybrid additive manufacturing?
Authors: Koo, Jing Wee
Ho, Jia Shin
An, Jia
Zhang, Yi
Chua, Chee Kai
Chong, Tzyy Haur
Keywords: Engineering::Mechanical engineering
Issue Date: 2021
Source: Koo, J. W., Ho, J. S., An, J., Zhang, Y., Chua, C. K. & Chong, T. H. (2021). A review on spacers and membranes: conventional or hybrid additive manufacturing?. Water Research, 188, 116497-.
Journal: Water Research 
Abstract: Over the past decade, 3D printing or additive manufacturing (AM) technology has seen great advancement in many aspects such as printing resolution, speed and cost. Membranes for water treatment experienced significant breakthroughs owing to the unique benefits of additive manufacturing. In particular, 3D printing's high degree of freedom in various aspects such as material and prototype design has helped to fabricate innovative spacers and membranes. However, there were conflicting reports on the feasibility of 3D printing, especially for membranes. Some research groups stated that technology limitations today made it impossible to 3D print membranes, but others showed that it was possible by successfully fabricating prototypes. This paper will provide a critical and comprehensive discussion on 3D printing specifically for spacers and membranes. Various 3D printing techniques will be introduced, and their suitability for membrane and spacer fabrication will be discussed. It will be followed by a review of past studies associated with 3D-printed spacers and membranes. A new category of additive manufacturing in the membrane water industry will be introduced here, known as hybrid additive manufacturing, to address the controversies of 3D printing for membrane. As AM technology continues to advance, its possibilities in the water treatment is limitless. Some insightful future trends will be provided at the end of the paper.
ISSN: 0043-1354
DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2020.116497
Schools: School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering 
School of Civil and Environmental Engineering 
Interdisciplinary Graduate School (IGS) 
Research Centres: Singapore Membrane Technology Centre 
Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute 
Singapore Centre for 3D Printing 
Rights: © 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fulltext Permission: none
Fulltext Availability: No Fulltext
Appears in Collections:CEE Journal Articles
IGS Journal Articles
MAE Journal Articles
NEWRI Journal Articles
SC3DP Journal Articles

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