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Title: Gender-specific pictorial health warnings: moderation effects of the threat level and gender
Authors: Kim, Hye Kyung 
Chua, Xuan
Keywords: Social sciences::Communication
Issue Date: 2022
Source: Kim, H. K. & Chua, X. (2022). Gender-specific pictorial health warnings: moderation effects of the threat level and gender. Journal of Health Communication, 27(2), 93-102.
Journal: Journal of Health Communication 
Abstract: This study examined the effects of gender-specific pictorial health warning labels contingent on their intended gender and threat levels (for females) in forming anti-smoking intentions. We conducted a within-subject design experiment with smokers and nonsmokers in Singapore (N = 100, 50% men). Each participant viewed 10 warning labels-four female-specific (high and low threat), four gender-neutral (high and low threat), and two male-specific (only low threat)-in a random order, evaluating each label on personal relevance, attention, cognitive elaboration, reactance, and intentions to purchase or avoid smoking. The findings showed that females reported greater relevance, attention, elaboration, and intentions to avoid smoking for low threat female-specific warning labels than male-specific or gender-neutral counterparts. Males reported less attention, elaboration, and relevance for low threat male-specific warning labels than female-specific or gender-neutral counterparts. Under high threat conditions, female-specific and gender-neutral warning labels were equally effective for both genders. No differences were observed by smoking status. Overall, gender-specific warning labels are potentially more effective than gender-neutral ones for deterring smoking in women contingent on low threat levels. By providing a deeper understanding of persuasive mechanisms and boundary conditions for the effects of gender specificity, findings can aid health policymakers in developing better gender-responsive interventions.
ISSN: 1081-0730
DOI: 10.1080/10810730.2022.2056667
Schools: Wee Kim Wee School of Communication and Information 
School of Social Sciences 
Rights: © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Journal of Health Communication on 04 Apr 2022 available online:
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
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