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dc.contributor.authorZhao, Meiqien_US
dc.identifier.citationZhao, M. (2022). Server allocation for massively multiplayer online cloud games. Doctoral thesis, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
dc.description.abstractMassively Multiplayer Online Cloud Game (MMOCG) is a combination of cloud gaming and Massively Multiplayer Online Game (MMOG). Running MMOGs on the cloud can reduce the cost for the players, attract potential players, and meet the nowadays preference of mobile devices. However, the MMOCGs introduce new challenges that need to be addressed. MMOGs usually consume more computational resources because of their sophisticated graphics. Hosting MMOCGs can be more expensive for game operators than hosting other genres of games on the cloud. In order to earn a decent profit, the cost of hosting MMOCGs must be reduced to an acceptable cost. Moreover, MMOCG introduce extra cloud servers to MMOG, which increased the burden of network transmission. So, the MMOCGs must have a good quality of service (QoS) and quality of experience (QoE) to retain the players. In this thesis, we study the server allocation problem to improve MMOCGs in many aspects, including money cost, QoS, and QoE. We proposed three different server allocation strategies to address the challenges of MMOCGs in different situations. We first consider the MMOCG system with several cloud gaming platforms that lie in different locations in the world, each can provide a type of server that can host MMOG on them. The cloud gaming system only obtains the information necessary for gaming. With only the log-in information, a server allocation problem is defined to reduce the money cost of hosting MMOCGs and provide an acceptable network latency for the players. The problem is formulated into an optimization problem that aims to minimize the weighted combination of server rental cost, data transfer cost, and network latency. A genetic algorithm is developed to solve the minimization problem. Extensive experiments are conducted to evaluate the proposed method and compare it with the state-of-the-art as well. The experimental results show that the method gives a lower money cost and a shorter network latency most of the time. We then consider the MMOCG system that can collect the past logging in and out data of the players. We proposed a server allocation problem that aims to reduce the cost of cloud server rental and improve the QoE of the system. A genetic algorithm with gaming time prediction is proposed to solve the problem. The gaming time of the players logging into the system is predicted by the model trained by a neural network. We conduct experiments to evaluate our method and the proposed gaming time prediction model. The results show that our prediction model can achieve almost highly accurate prediction and the server allocation strategy we proposed outperforms the prior art in both server rental and QoE. At last, we consider the influence of QoE on the movement of players during gaming time and propose a server allocation problem aiming to improve the QoE of players during gaming time. We propose a genetic algorithm with trace prediction to address this problem. A trace prediction that predicts the future positions of players for a few time steps when they log into the MMOCG system. Experiments are conducted to evaluate our method by measuring the network latency, mean opinion score, and the time consuming computation. The results show that our method outperforms the genetic algorithm without trace prediction in over 50% of the cases.en_US
dc.publisherNanyang Technological Universityen_US
dc.rightsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0).en_US
dc.subjectEngineering::Computer science and engineering::Theory of computation::Analysis of algorithms and problem complexityen_US
dc.subjectEngineering::Computer science and engineering::Computer systems organization::Computer-communication networksen_US
dc.titleServer allocation for massively multiplayer online cloud gamesen_US
dc.typeThesis-Doctor of Philosophyen_US
dc.contributor.supervisorZheng Jianminen_US
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Computer Science and Engineeringen_US
dc.description.degreeDoctor of Philosophyen_US
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