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dc.contributor.authorWang, Yaminen_US
dc.contributor.authorTan, Swee Nginen_US
dc.contributor.authorMohamed Lokman Mohd Yusofen_US
dc.contributor.authorGhosh, Subhadipen_US
dc.contributor.authorLam, Yeng Mingen_US
dc.identifier.citationWang, Y., Tan, S. N., Mohamed Lokman Mohd Yusof, Ghosh, S. & Lam, Y. M. (2022). Assessment of heavy metal and metalloid levels and screening potential of tropical plant species for phytoremediation in Singapore. Environmental Pollution, 295, 118681-.
dc.description.abstractHeavy metal or metalloid contamination is a common problem in soils of urban environments. Their introduction can be due to unpremeditated anthropogenic activities like atmospheric deposition produced by diffuse sources, construction activities and landscape maintenance. Phytoremediation is a rapidly evolving, sustainable approach to remediate the contaminated lands where metals and metalloids are highly persistent in the environment. The present work sets out to determine the level of 12 heavy metals and metalloids (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb and Zn) in soil and their accumulation by plant foliage found in nature parks and industrial sites in Singapore. The latter also involve the investigation of the remediation capacity of selected tropical plant species found at the sampling sites. The study is done using digestion and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Eleven soil sampling sites across Singapore with 300 sampling points were selected, where soil (0-10 cm) and plant foliage samples were collected. Bioconcentration factors were determined to assess the phytoremediation potential of the collected plant species. Toxicity risk of heavy metals were assessed by comparing the target and intervention values from the soil quality guidelines by the Dutch Standard. Results of the study revealed there were regions where levels of heavy metals and metalloids were relatively high and could affect the environment and the health of flora and fauna in Singapore. Our study discovered that there were available tropical plant species (e.g., wildflowers, ferns and shrubs) which could potentially play a significant role in the remediation of contaminated lands that could open up a huge possibility of developing a sustainable and environmentally-friendly way of managing this emerging urban problem. Results showed that 12 plant species, including hyperaccumulator like Pteris vittata, Centella asiatica, were effective for the accumulation of heavy metals and metalloids.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipMinistry of National Development (MND)en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Parks Boarden_US
dc.relation.ispartofEnvironmental Pollutionen_US
dc.rights© 2021 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.en_US
dc.titleAssessment of heavy metal and metalloid levels and screening potential of tropical plant species for phytoremediation in Singaporeen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Materials Science and Engineeringen_US
dc.contributor.schoolNational Institute of Educationen_US
dc.subject.keywordsHeavy Metals and Metalloidsen_US
dc.description.acknowledgementThis study is funded by the Ministry of National Development Research Fund (MNDRF). The project and funds are managed by Centre for Urban Greenery and Ecology (Research), National Parks Board (NParks) Singapore.en_US
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