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Title: The airway microbiome: present and future applications
Authors: Aogáin, Micheál Mac
Jaggi, Tavleen Kaur
Chotirmall, Sanjay Haresh
Keywords: Science::Medicine
Issue Date: 2022
Source: Aogáin, M. M., Jaggi, T. K. & Chotirmall, S. H. (2022). The airway microbiome: present and future applications. Archivos De Bronconeumologia, 58(1), 8-10.
Journal: Archivos de bronconeumologia
Abstract: Accelerated by developments in DNA sequencing technologies, our understanding of the respiratory microbiome is advancing at pace, providing unprecedented opportunities for clinical translation. Building on the early observations of sub-clinical micro-aspiration in healthy individuals, and initial culture independent microbiome studies in respiratory disease, recent work reveals an expansive microbial ecosystem that encompasses bacterial, fungal and viral constituents. This has led to major paradigm shifts including the potential importance of airway microbial networks in chronic respiratory disease states. As a complex organ system, with varying topology and a mucosal surface area exceeding that of the gut, the respiratory tract is recognized as a key site of host-microbe interaction. The airway experiences dynamic and continuous microbial exposures on breathing, shaped by climate and environmental surroundings, and is further influenced by sub clinical micro-aspiration of resident upper-airway microbes. The respiratory microbiome exists as an ecological gradient from upper to lower airway, interacting with host epithelia in balance between immune homeostasis and pathology. Current models posit that a balanced host-microbe interaction establishes in early life with a protective immune response that become dysregulated in respiratory disease. Characterization of microbial aberration as early indicators of deteriorating respiratory health is therefore a fundamental concept underpinning its potential clinical applications. Detecting microbial dysbiosis from otherwise ‘healthy microbiomes’ represents a potential opportunity for personalized phenotyping, stratification and therapeutic intervention. Despite such promise, this relatively nascent field has inherent challenges that need addressing as we seek to translate research gains in our understanding of the airway microbiome into tangible clinical applications for respiratory medicine.
ISSN: 0300-2896
DOI: 10.1016/j.arbres.2021.08.003
Rights: © 2021 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Fulltext Permission: none
Fulltext Availability: No Fulltext
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