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dc.contributor.authorLai, Gwo Sungen_US
dc.contributor.authorZhao, Yalien_US
dc.contributor.authorWang, Rongen_US
dc.identifier.citationLai, G. S., Zhao, Y. & Wang, R. (2022). Liposome-integrated seawater reverse osmosis membrane prepared via facile spray-assisted interfacial polymerization. Journal of Membrane Science, 650, 120405-.
dc.description.abstractIn this work, we demonstrated the effectiveness of using spray-assisted interfacial polymerization (IP) technique in fabricating liposome-integrated thin film nanocomposite (TFN) membranes for seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO). The liposome loading within the selective polyamide (PA) layer of the TFN membrane can be precisely controlled by manipulating spraying conditions to eliminate the wastage of precious additives compared to the conventional blending method. Spraying the liposomes after applying the aqueous phase of M-phenylenediamine (MPD) could prevent the loss and disruption of liposome distribution over the substrate layer. Upon incorporating 4 mg/m2 of liposomes, the best-performing S4-a membrane is able to achieve 27% higher water permeability than the liposome-free membrane, demonstrating a permeability of 3.24 L/m2·h·bar along with 99.3% NaCl rejection for seawater desalination. Characterization showed that dynamic liposomes had affected the IP process by creating a larger miscible reaction zone for IP, which led to the formation of a rougher PA surface with more nanovoids in the ultra-thin selective layer, thus, contributing to higher effective surface area and less hydraulic resistance for improving water permeability. An additional PVA layer was coated atop the liposome-integrated membrane to effectively improve the membrane stability and fouling resistance, leading to a comparable level of salt rejection with the state-of-the-art commercial membranes in treating real seawater, while water permeability was enhanced by 26–185%. This work presents a readily scalable spray-assisted IP technique to fabricate liposome-integrated SWRO membrane for seawater desalination.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Research Foundation (NRF)en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipPublic Utilities Board (PUB)en_US
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of Membrane Scienceen_US
dc.rights© 2022 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.en_US
dc.subjectEngineering::Environmental engineeringen_US
dc.titleLiposome-integrated seawater reverse osmosis membrane prepared via facile spray-assisted interfacial polymerizationen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Civil and Environmental Engineeringen_US
dc.contributor.researchNanyang Environment and Water Research Instituteen_US
dc.contributor.researchSingapore Membrane Technology Centreen_US
dc.subject.keywordsThin-Film Compositeen_US
dc.subject.keywordsMembrane Desalinationen_US
dc.description.acknowledgementThis research is supported by the National Research Foundation, Singapore, and PUB, Singapore’s national water agency under the Unban Solutions & Sustainability programme (project number PUB-1801-0010).en_US
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