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Title: The role of the solidification structure on orientation-dependent hardness in stainless steel 316L produced by laser powder bed fusion
Authors: Tekumalla, Sravya
Selvarajou, Balaji
Raman, Sudharshan
Gao, Shubo
Seita, Matteo
Keywords: Engineering::Materials
Engineering::Mechanical engineering
Issue Date: 2022
Source: Tekumalla, S., Selvarajou, B., Raman, S., Gao, S. & Seita, M. (2022). The role of the solidification structure on orientation-dependent hardness in stainless steel 316L produced by laser powder bed fusion. Materials Science and Engineering A, 833, 142493-.
Project: 04INS000761C160 
Journal: Materials Science and Engineering A 
Abstract: Owing to the rapid cooling rates and directional thermal gradients involved, fusion-based additive manufacturing (AM) processes yield complex, fine solidification structures that impart anisotropic mechanical properties in materials, such as stainless steel 316L (SS316L). In this work, we present a comprehensive study of the mechanical anisotropy of SS316L produced by laser powder bed fusion using instrumented nanoindentation. We produce and test near-single crystal samples oriented along the three principal crystallographic axes—namely ⟨100⟩, ⟨110⟩, and ⟨111⟩—using a Berkovich indenter. We find that the ⟨111⟩ and ⟨100⟩ orientations exhibit the highest and the lowest hardness, respectively. To decouple the contributions of grain orientation and solidification structure to the alloy's mechanical anisotropy, we compare our experimental results against crystal plasticity finite element (CPFE) simulations. We ascribe the hardness anisotropy in SS316L to the cell spacing along the slip direction (CSSD), which is a novel metric that we introduce to account for the role of the solidification structure on plasticity. Our work provides a universal pathway to understanding the microstructure-property relationships in cubic metallic materials that exhibit solidification structures,such as those commonly imparted by fusion-based AM.
ISSN: 0921-5093
DOI: 10.1016/j.msea.2021.142493
Rights: © 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
Appears in Collections:MAE Journal Articles
MSE Journal Articles
SC3DP Journal Articles

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