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dc.contributor.authorPradhan, Subhasisen_US
dc.contributor.authorPoh, Anthony Chang Boonen_US
dc.contributor.authorQian, Shunzhien_US
dc.identifier.citationPradhan, S., Poh, A. C. B. & Qian, S. (2022). Impact of service life and system boundaries on life cycle assessment of sustainable concrete mixes. Journal of Cleaner Production, 342, 130847-.
dc.description.abstractPartial substitution of cement/clinker in concrete mix helps reduce its environmental impact. The supplementary cementitious materials such as fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), and limestone calcined clay concrete (LC3) are thus been exploited without affecting the short-term performance of concrete. The long-term performance of concrete largely affects the service life of a structure and consequently the environmental impact during the service period. Hence, a comparative life cycle assessment study of four concrete mixes (controlled, fly ash blended (FA30), GGBS blended (GGBS50) and LC3) considering cradle-to-gate and cradle-to-grave system boundaries is conducted for the scenario in Singapore. The chloride resistance of these concrete mixtures is considered for service life estimation as it is the major cause for corrosion of the reinforcement. The uncertainty study reflects the dependence of service life on threshold chloride content. The service life is in the order of LC3 > FA30 > GGBS50 > controlled mix. LC3 and controlled concrete exhibit minimum and maximum environmental impact, respectively irrespective of system boundary. In cradle-to-gate system boundary, GGBS50 exhibits lesser environmental impact than FA30 excluding abiotic depletion, human toxicity, freshwater aquatic ecotoxicity and marine aquatic ecotoxicity impact categories owing to higher cement substitution level. However, the consideration of service life in cradle-to-grave system boundary resulted in lesser environmental impact for FA30 than GGBS50 in all impact categories (apart from acidification, GWP and terrestrial ecotoxicity), owing to the fewer repair cycles and subsequent utilization of concrete.en_US
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of Cleaner Productionen_US
dc.rights© 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.en_US
dc.subjectEngineering::Civil engineeringen_US
dc.titleImpact of service life and system boundaries on life cycle assessment of sustainable concrete mixesen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Civil and Environmental Engineeringen_US
dc.contributor.researchSJ-NTU Corporate Laben_US
dc.subject.keywordsFly Ashen_US
dc.subject.keywordsChloride Penetrationen_US
dc.description.acknowledgementThis study is supported under the RIE2020 Industry Alignment Fund–Industry Collaboration Projects (IAF-ICP) Funding Initiative, as well as cash and in-kind contribution from Surbana Jurong Pte Ltd.en_US
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