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Title: Electromagnetic wave propagation through composite building materials in urban environments at mid‐band 5G frequencies
Authors: Ng, Sean Jake Peng
Sum, Yee Loon
Soong, Boon Hee
Maier, Marcus
Monteiro, Paulo J. M.
Keywords: Engineering::Electrical and electronic engineering::Antennas, wave guides, microwaves, radar, radio
Engineering::Materials::Composite materials
Issue Date: 2022
Source: Ng, S. J. P., Sum, Y. L., Soong, B. H., Maier, M. & Monteiro, P. J. M. (2022). Electromagnetic wave propagation through composite building materials in urban environments at mid‐band 5G frequencies. IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, 16(10), 627-638.
Journal: IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation
Abstract: In an urban built city environment, the performance of electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation through building materials poses a new set of challenges to radio frequency engineers in the prediction of the 5G-network coverage planning. We propose the prospects on the use of composite building materials enhanced with different volumetric fractions of iron (III) oxide (Fe2O3) inclusions as a reddish-brown colouring admixture in modern-day concrete. Using a non-destructive microwave measurement technique, a two-factor 6 × 10 factorial experiment and a randomized controlled statistical study from 3.40 to 3.60 GHz is conducted on 15-cm thick building material prototypes enhanced with 2-wt% to 10-wt% micro-sized Fe2O3 inclusions to evaluate their efficacy on EM wave propagation. Transmission coefficients (S21) data are analysed statistically between treatment and control groups, yielding up to 2.28 dB mean S21 improvement in performance and a fractional bandwidth of 100% by the 2-wt% Fe2O3 treatment group. Electromagnetic characterisations of the fabricated mortar samples with different Fe2O3 inclusions are performed using Nicholson-Ross-Weir model followed by the evaluation of dielectric and propagation losses. Our findings support the use of 2-wt% Fe2O3 as the optimal volumetric fraction which improves the microwave transparency, thus creating potential EM benefits for the fifth-generation (5G) wireless communication systems.
ISSN: 1751-8725
DOI: 10.1049/mia2.12274
Schools: School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering 
Organisations: SinBerBEST
Research Centres: Centre for Infocomm Technology (INFINITUS) 
Rights: © 2022 The Authors. IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation publishedby John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Institutionof Engineering and Technology. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution‐NonCommercial‐NoDerivs License,which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non‐commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
Appears in Collections:EEE Journal Articles

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