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dc.contributor.authorLi, Wenxuanen_US
dc.contributor.authorMao, Feijianen_US
dc.contributor.authorNg, Charmaineen_US
dc.contributor.authorJong, Mui Chooen_US
dc.contributor.authorGoh, Shin Gieken_US
dc.contributor.authorCharles, Francis Rathinamen_US
dc.contributor.authorNg, Oon Teken_US
dc.contributor.authorMarimuthu, Kalisvaren_US
dc.contributor.authorHe, Yiliangen_US
dc.contributor.authorGin, Karina Yew-Hoongen_US
dc.identifier.citationLi, W., Mao, F., Ng, C., Jong, M. C., Goh, S. G., Charles, F. R., Ng, O. T., Marimuthu, K., He, Y. & Gin, K. Y. (2022). Population-based variations of a core resistome revealed by urban sewage metagenome surveillance. Environment International, 163, 107185-.
dc.description.abstractSewage-based surveillance is widely employed to understand the occurrence and distribution of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in urban community. However, there are limited studies which investigated the sewage of different sources within community. The present study used metagenomics to decipher the AMR profiles in five sources: local residence's source, animal source, migrant workers' source, clinical source , and urban wastewater treatment plant influent. A core resistome of ARGs was found across all samples, accounting for 81.4%-93.3% of the abundance of total resistome with only 17.3% diversity, irrespective of the sewage sources. Clinically relevant ARGs were identified in the core resistome across all wastewater sources. This included genes conferring resistance to beta-lactams as biomarkers of hospital sewage. The pet center wastewater showed a high abundance of genes encoding resistance to tetracycline, which is a commonly used veterinary antibiotic. The resistome profile of sewage from the migrant workers' dormitories showed a slight variation to that of the local residential population, suggesting possible differences in the human gut resistome of the foreign/migrant population, with biomarkers of genes encoding resistance to fosfomycin, fosmidomycin, kasugamycin, MLS, and polymyxin. The co-localization of ARGs and plasmid, MGEs and integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) could explain variations in the core resistome, presumably a result of high antibiotic selection pressure. Further analysis showed a specific host-associated resistance pattern, in which core hosts mediated the core resistome profile. The core BMRGs were also co-localized with MGEs/ICEs and carried by core potential bacterial hosts. Local healthy population carried the lowest ARG load (copy number discharged by each person per day) but contributed the highest ARG burden (copy number discharged by the population). This study elucidates population-based variations of a core resistome, and further provides important insights into source tracking and management of AMR in urban environments.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Medical Research Council (NMRC)en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Research Foundation (NRF)en_US
dc.relation.ispartofEnvironment Internationalen_US
dc.rights© 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (
dc.titlePopulation-based variations of a core resistome revealed by urban sewage metagenome surveillanceen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.contributor.schoolLee Kong Chian School of Medicine (LKCMedicine)en_US
dc.contributor.organizationNational Centre for Infectious Diseases, Singaporeen_US
dc.contributor.organizationTan Tock Seng Hospitalen_US
dc.description.versionPublished versionen_US
dc.subject.keywordsSewage Surveillanceen_US
dc.description.acknowledgementThis research is supported by the National Research Foundation, Prime Minister’s Office, Singapore under its Campus for Research Excellence and Technological Enterprise (CREATE) programme (E2S2-CREATE project ES-2: Detection, Assessment & Modelling of Emerging Contaminants in the Urban Environment). Dr Ng OT is supported by NMRC Clinician Scientist Award (MOH-000276).en_US
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