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Title: Looking deep inside tissue with photoacoustic molecular probes: a review
Authors: Xie, Hui
Mohammad O. A. Malik
Pramanik, Manojit
Keywords: Engineering::Bioengineering
Issue Date: 2022
Source: Xie, H., Mohammad O. A. Malik & Pramanik, M. (2022). Looking deep inside tissue with photoacoustic molecular probes: a review. Journal of Biomedical Optics, 27(7), 070901-.
Project: RG30/21 
Journal: Journal of Biomedical Optics 
Abstract: Significance: Deep tissue noninvasive high-resolution imaging with light is challenging due to the high degree of light absorption and scattering in biological tissue. Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) can overcome some of the challenges of pure optical or ultrasound imaging to provide high-resolution deep tissue imaging. However, label-free PAI signals from light absorbing chromophores within the tissue are nonspecific. The use of exogeneous contrast agents (probes) not only enhances the imaging contrast (and imaging depth) but also increases the specificity of PAI by binding only to targeted molecules and often providing signals distinct from the background. Aim: We aim to review the current development and future progression of photoacoustic molecular probes/contrast agents. Approach: First, PAI and the need for using contrast agents are briefly introduced. Then, the recent development of contrast agents in terms of materials used to construct them is discussed. Then, various probes are discussed based on targeting mechanisms, in vivo molecular imaging applications, multimodal uses, and use in theranostic applications. Results: Material combinations are being used to develop highly specific contrast agents. In addition to passive accumulation, probes utilizing activation mechanisms show promise for greater controllability. Several probes also enable concurrent multimodal use with fluorescence, ultrasound, Raman, magnetic resonance imaging, and computed tomography. Finally, targeted probes are also shown to aid localized and molecularly specific photo-induced therapy. Conclusions: The development of contrast agents provides a promising prospect for increased contrast, higher imaging depth, and molecularly specific information. Of note are agents that allow for controlled activation, explore other optical windows, and enable multimodal use to overcome some of the shortcomings of label-free PAI.
ISSN: 1083-3668
DOI: 10.1117/1.JBO.27.7.070901
Schools: School of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology 
Rights: © The Authors. Published by SPIE under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Distribution or reproduction of this work in whole or in part requires full attribution of the original publication, including its DOI. [DOI: 10.1117/1.JBO.27.7.070901]
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
Appears in Collections:CCEB Journal Articles

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