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dc.contributor.authorLim, Yu Jieen_US
dc.contributor.authorGoh, Kunlien_US
dc.contributor.authorWang, Rongen_US
dc.identifier.citationLim, Y. J., Goh, K. & Wang, R. (2022). The coming of age of water channels for separation membranes: from biological to biomimetic to synthetic. Chemical Society Reviews, 51(11), 4537-4582.
dc.description.abstractWater channels are one of the key pillars driving the development of next-generation desalination and water treatment membranes. Over the past two decades, the rise of nanotechnology has brought together an abundance of multifunctional nanochannels that are poised to reinvent separation membranes with performances exceeding those of state-of-the-art polymeric membranes within the water-energy nexus. Today, these water nanochannels can be broadly categorized into biological, biomimetic and synthetic, owing to their different natures, physicochemical properties and methods for membrane nanoarchitectonics. Furthermore, against the backdrop of different separation mechanisms, different types of nanochannel exhibit unique merits and limitations, which determine their usability and suitability for different membrane designs. Herein, this review outlines the progress of a comprehensive amount of nanochannels, which include aquaporins, pillar[5]arenes, I-quartets, different types of nanotubes and their porins, graphene-based materials, metal- and covalent-organic frameworks, porous organic cages, MoS2, and MXenes, offering a comparative glimpse into where their potential lies. First, we map out the background by looking into the evolution of nanochannels over the years, before discussing their latest developments by focusing on the key physicochemical and intrinsic transport properties of these channels from the chemistry standpoint. Next, we put into perspective the fabrication methods that can nanoarchitecture water channels into high-performance nanochannel-enabled membranes, focusing especially on the distinct differences of each type of nanochannel and how they can be leveraged to unlock the as-promised high water transport potential in current mainstream membrane designs. Lastly, we critically evaluate recent findings to provide a holistic qualitative assessment of the nanochannels with respect to the attributes that are most strongly valued in membrane engineering, before discussing upcoming challenges to share our perspectives with researchers for pathing future directions in this coming of age of water channels.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Research Foundation (NRF)en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipPublic Utilities Board (PUB)en_US
dc.relation.ispartofChemical Society Reviewsen_US
dc.rights© 2022 The Royal Society of Chemistry. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported Licence.en_US
dc.subjectEngineering::Environmental engineeringen_US
dc.titleThe coming of age of water channels for separation membranes: from biological to biomimetic to syntheticen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Civil and Environmental Engineeringen_US
dc.contributor.schoolInterdisciplinary Graduate School (IGS)en_US
dc.contributor.researchNanyang Environment and Water Research Instituteen_US
dc.contributor.researchSingapore Membrane Technology Centreen_US
dc.description.versionPublished versionen_US
dc.subject.keywordsMembrane Designsen_US
dc.subject.keywordsPhysicochemical Methodsen_US
dc.description.acknowledgementThis research grant was supported by the Singapore National Research Foundation under its Urban Solutions & Sustainability Program and administered by PUB, Singapore’s National Water Agency (grant number: PUB-1801-0010).en_US
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