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Title: Dementia in Southeast Asia: influence of onset-type, education, and cerebrovascular disease
Authors: Vipin, Ashwati
Satish, Vaynii
Saffari, Seyed Ehsan
Koh, Wilbur
Lim, Levinia
Silva, Eveline
Nyu, Mei Mei
Choong, Tanya-Marie
Chua, Esther
Lim, Linda
Ng, Adeline Su Lyn
Chiew, Hui Jin
Ng, Kok Pin
Kandiah, Nagaendran
Keywords: Science::Medicine
Issue Date: 2021
Source: Vipin, A., Satish, V., Saffari, S. E., Koh, W., Lim, L., Silva, E., Nyu, M. M., Choong, T., Chua, E., Lim, L., Ng, A. S. L., Chiew, H. J., Ng, K. P. & Kandiah, N. (2021). Dementia in Southeast Asia: influence of onset-type, education, and cerebrovascular disease. Alzheimer's Research and Therapy, 13(1), 195-.
Journal: Alzheimer's Research and Therapy 
Abstract: Background: Southeast Asia represents 10% of the global population, yet little is known about regional clinical characteristics of dementia and risk factors for dementia progression. This study aims to describe the clinico-demographic profiles of dementia in Southeast Asia and investigate the association of onset-type, education, and cerebrovascular disease (CVD) on dementia progression in a real-world clinic setting. Methods: In this longitudinal study, participants were consecutive series of 1606 patients with dementia from 2010 to 2019 from a tertiary memory clinic from Singapore. The frequency of dementia subtypes stratified into young-onset (YOD; <65 years age-at-onset) and late-onset dementia (LOD; ≥65 years age-at-onset) was studied. Association of onset-type (YOD or LOD), years of lifespan education, and CVD on the trajectory of cognition was evaluated using linear mixed models. The time to significant cognitive decline was investigated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results: Dementia of the Alzheimer’s type (DAT) was the most common diagnosis (59.8%), followed by vascular dementia (14.9%) and frontotemporal dementia (11.1%). YOD patients accounted for 28.5% of all dementia patients. Patients with higher lifespan education had a steeper decline in global cognition (p<0.001), with this finding being more pronounced in YOD (p=0.0006). Older patients with a moderate-to-severe burden of CVD demonstrated a trend for a faster decline in global cognition compared to those with a mild burden. Conclusions: There is a high frequency of YOD with DAT being most common in our Southeast Asian memory clinic cohort. YOD patients with higher lifespan education and LOD patients with moderate-to-severe CVD experience a steep decline in cognition.
ISSN: 1758-9193
DOI: 10.1186/s13195-021-00936-y
Schools: Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine (LKCMedicine) 
Organisations: National Neuroscience Institute
Duke-NUS Medical School
Rights: © The Author(s) 2021. Open Access. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativeco applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
Appears in Collections:LKCMedicine Journal Articles

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