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Title: Olfactory identification disorders due to Alzheimer's disease: a new test from France to Quebec
Authors: Payne, Magali
Manera, Valeria
Robert, Philippe
Vandersteen, Clair
Beauchet, Olivier
Galery, Kevin
Sacco, Guillaume
Fabre, Roxane
Gros, Auriane
Keywords: Science::Medicine
Issue Date: 2022
Source: Payne, M., Manera, V., Robert, P., Vandersteen, C., Beauchet, O., Galery, K., Sacco, G., Fabre, R. & Gros, A. (2022). Olfactory identification disorders due to Alzheimer's disease: a new test from France to Quebec. PloS One, 17(4), e0265764-.
Journal: PloS one
Abstract: Olfactory identification disorder is regarded as an early marker of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and of similar diagnostic significance of biological or cognitive markers. Premature damage of the entorhinal olfactory cortex, the hippocampus and the orbitofrontal cortex characterize AD and suggest a specific impairment of olfactory identification. The use of psychophysical olfactory identification tests in clinical diagnostic practice is therefore strongly recommended, but not required. As these widespread tests are rarely used, an innovative test, adapted to this target group has been developed. It has been used and validated in a routine care protocol at different Memory Centers in France and in Quebec, Canada. A total of 157 participants were recruited: including 63 Alzheimer's patients and 94 healthy controls. The test was composed of 14 odorants diluted into 4 different concentrations. A computer interface generated randomization of 6 odors per participant and the automatic calculation of identification scores, of perceptual thresholds and of composite scores. All participants underwent a Mini Mental Scale Examination within the previous three months or on the same day of the olfactory test. The Alzheimer's patients had a score between 20 and 30 and healthy controls participants had a score above 28 without any loss of points on recalled items. The results show that our olfactory identification test is able to significantly differentiate Alzheimer's patients from healthy controls (p < 0.001), and to distinguish the French population tested from the Quebec population (p < 0.001). This study highlights an olfactory identification disorder as a target for early diagnosis of AD. Its cultural qualities make it a potential candidate for differentiated calibration between France and Quebec.
ISSN: 1932-6203
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0265764
Schools: Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine (LKCMedicine) 
Rights: © 2022 Payne et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
Appears in Collections:LKCMedicine Journal Articles

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