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Title: Facial action unit detection using attention and relation learning
Authors: Shao, Zhiwen
Liu, Zhilei
Cai, Jianfei
Wu, Yunsheng
Ma, Lizhuang
Keywords: Engineering::Computer science and engineering
Issue Date: 2019
Source: Shao, Z., Liu, Z., Cai, J., Wu, Y. & Ma, L. (2019). Facial action unit detection using attention and relation learning. IEEE Transactions On Affective Computing, 13(3), 1274-1289.
Journal: IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing
Abstract: Attention mechanism has recently attracted increasing attentions in the field of facial action unit (AU) detection. By finding the region of interest of each AU with the attention mechanism, AU-related local features can be captured. Most of the existing attention based AU detection works use prior knowledge to predefine fixed attentions or refine the predefined attentions within a small range, which limits their capacity to model various AUs. In this paper, we propose an end-to-end deep learning based attention and relation learning framework for AU detection with only AU labels, which has not been explored before. In particular, multi-scale features shared by each AU are learned firstly, and then both channel-wise and spatial attentions are adaptively learned to select and extract AU-related local features. Moreover, pixel-level relations for AUs are further captured to refine spatial attentions so as to extract more relevant local features. Without changing the network architecture, our framework can be easily extended for AU intensity estimation. Extensive experiments show that our framework (i) soundly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods for both AU detection and AU intensity estimation on the challenging BP4D, DISFA, FERA 2015 and BP4D+ benchmarks, (ii) can adaptively capture the correlated regions of each AU, and (iii) also works well under severe occlusions and large poses.
ISSN: 1949-3045
DOI: 10.1109/TAFFC.2019.2948635
Rights: © 2019 IEEE. All rights reserved.
Fulltext Permission: none
Fulltext Availability: No Fulltext
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