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dc.contributor.authorGuo, Yuanyuanen_US
dc.contributor.authorZou, Yimingen_US
dc.contributor.authorCheng, Chunyuen_US
dc.contributor.authorWang, Leyanen_US
dc.contributor.authorMade, Riko I.en_US
dc.contributor.authorGoei, Ronnen_US
dc.contributor.authorTan, Kwan Weeen_US
dc.contributor.authorLi, Shuzhouen_US
dc.contributor.authorTok, Alfred Iing Yoongen_US
dc.identifier.citationGuo, Y., Zou, Y., Cheng, C., Wang, L., Made, R. I., Goei, R., Tan, K. W., Li, S. & Tok, A. I. Y. (2022). Noble metal alloy thin films by atomic layer deposition and rapid Joule heating. Scientific Reports, 12(1), 2522-.
dc.description.abstractMetal alloys are usually fabricated by melting constituent metals together or sintering metal alloy particles made by high energy ball milling (mechanical alloying). All these methods only allow for bulk alloys to be formed. This manuscript details a new method of fabricating Rhodium-Iridium (Rh-Ir) metal alloy films using atomic layer deposition (ALD) and rapid Joule heating induced alloying that gives functional thin film alloys, enabling conformal thin films with high aspect ratios on 3D nanostructured substrate. In this work, ALD was used to deposit Rh thin film on an Al2O3 substrate, followed by an Ir overlayer on top of the Rh film. The multilayered structure was then alloyed/sintered using rapid Joule heating. We can precisely control the thickness of the resultant alloy films down to the atomic scale. The Rh-Ir alloy thin films were characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM/TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to study their microstructural characteristics which showed the morphology difference before and after rapid Joule heating and confirmed the interdiffusion between Rh and Ir during rapid Joule heating. The diffraction peak shift was observed by Grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) indicating the formation of Rh-Ir thin film alloys after rapid Joule heating. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was also carried out and implied the formation of Rh-Ir alloy. Molecular dynamics simulation experiments of Rh-Ir alloys using Large-Scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator (LAMMPS) were performed to elucidate the alloying mechanism during the rapid heating process, corroborating the experimental results.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipAgency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR)en_US
dc.relationSERC A1983c0032en_US
dc.relation.ispartofScientific Reportsen_US
dc.rights© The Author(s) 2022. Open Access. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit
dc.titleNoble metal alloy thin films by atomic layer deposition and rapid Joule heatingen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Materials Science and Engineeringen_US
dc.description.versionPublished versionen_US
dc.description.acknowledgementThe work was supported by the Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR) under award number SERC A1983c0032, AME Individual Research Grant (IRG) for this project.en_US
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