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dc.contributor.authorChen, Chenen_US
dc.contributor.authorZhao, Zengfengen_US
dc.contributor.authorXiao, Jianzhuangen_US
dc.contributor.authorTiong, Roberten_US
dc.identifier.citationChen, C., Zhao, Z., Xiao, J. & Tiong, R. (2021). A conceptual framework for estimating building embodied carbon based on digital twin technology and life cycle assessment. Sustainability, 13(24), 13875-.
dc.description.abstractLow-carbon building design requests an estimation of total embodied carbon as the environmental performance metric for comparison of different design options in early design stages. Due to a lack of consensus on the system boundaries in building life cycle assessment (LCA), the carbon estimation results obtained by the current methods are often disputable. In this regard, this paper proposes a method for estimating building embodied carbon based on digital twin technology and LCA. The proposed method is advantageous over others by providing (1) a cradle-to-cradle LCA and (2) an automated data communication between LCA and building information modelling (BIM) databases. Because data for the processes in the life cycle are collected via digital twin technology in a standard and consistent way, the obtained results will be considered credible. So far, a conceptual framework is developed based on a comprehensive literature review, which consists of three parts. In the first part, formulas for LCA are given. In the second part, a hybrid approach combining semantic web with a relational database for BIM and radio-frequency identification (RFID) integration is described. In the third part, how to design the LCA database and how to link LCA with BIM are described. The conceptual framework proposed is tested for its reasonableness by a small hypothetical case study.en_US
dc.rights© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// 4.0/).en_US
dc.subjectEngineering::Civil engineeringen_US
dc.titleA conceptual framework for estimating building embodied carbon based on digital twin technology and life cycle assessmenten_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Civil and Environmental Engineeringen_US
dc.description.versionPublished versionen_US
dc.subject.keywordsEmbodied Carbonen_US
dc.subject.keywordsEarly Building Designen_US
dc.description.acknowledgementThis research was supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, funding numbers: 22120210372 and 22120210317 (Tongji University). The authors would like to acknowledge Tongji University for the support from young scholar research funding.en_US
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