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dc.contributor.authorHelmers, Eckarden_US
dc.contributor.authorChang, Chia Chienen_US
dc.contributor.authorDauwels, Justinen_US
dc.identifier.citationHelmers, E., Chang, C. C. & Dauwels, J. (2022). Carbon footprinting of universities worldwide part II: first quantification of complete embodied impacts of two campuses in Germany and Singapore. Sustainability (Switzerland), 14(7), 3865-.
dc.description.abstractUniversities, as innovation drivers in science and technology worldwide, should attempt to become carbon-neutral institutions and should lead this transformation. Many universities have picked up the challenge and quantified their carbon footprints; however, up-to-date quantification is limited to use-phase emissions. So far, data on embodied impacts of university campus infrastructure are missing, which prevents us from evaluating their life cycle costs. In this paper, we quantify the embodied impacts of two university campuses of very different sizes and climate zones: the Umwelt Campus Birkenfeld (UCB), Germany, and the Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore. We also quantify the effects of switching to full renewable energy supply on the carbon footprint of a university campus based on the example of UCB. The embodied impacts amount to 13.7 (UCB) and 26.2 (NTU) kg CO2e/m2•y, respectively, equivalent to 59.2% (UCB), and 29.8% (NTU), respectively, of the building lifecycle impacts. As a consequence, embodied impacts can be dominating; thus, they should be quantified and reported. When adding additional use-phase impacts caused by the universities on top of the building lifecycle impacts (e.g., mobility impacts), both institutions happen to exhibit very similar emissions with 124.5–126.3 kg CO2e/m2•y despite their different sizes, structures, and locations. Embodied impacts comprise 11.0–20.8% of the total impacts at the two universities. In conclusion, efficient reduction in university carbon footprints requires a holistic approach, considering all impacts caused on and by a campus including upstream effects.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNanyang Technological Universityen_US
dc.relation.ispartofSustainability (Switzerland)en_US
dc.rights© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// 4.0/).en_US
dc.subjectEngineering::Environmental engineeringen_US
dc.titleCarbon footprinting of universities worldwide part II: first quantification of complete embodied impacts of two campuses in Germany and Singaporeen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.contributor.researchEnergy Research Institute @ NTU (ERI@N)en_US
dc.description.versionPublished versionen_US
dc.subject.keywordsCarbon Footprintingen_US
dc.subject.keywordsUniversity Sustainabilityen_US
dc.description.acknowledgementThe project received funding from Nanyang Technological University Singapore.en_US
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