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Title: Not between the devil and the deep blue sea: Singapore's hedging
Authors: Chang, Jun Yan
Keywords: Social sciences::Political science
Issue Date: 2022
Source: Chang, J. Y. (2022). Not between the devil and the deep blue sea: Singapore's hedging. International Studies Quarterly, 66(3), sqac034-.
Journal: International Studies Quarterly 
Abstract: Hedging is typically understood as a middle path straddling balancing/bandwagoning, the military/economic, and United States/China. This conventional understanding of hedging confuses risk and threat. It also makes the hedging concept non- falsifiable and thus analytically dubious, while further reinforcing a false dialectic of other states in the Asia-Pacific as caught between the United States and China. This article proposes to restore the centrality of risk and autonomy back to the concept of hedging. It contends that hedging is a risk management strategy that emphasizes autonomy-to retain control, reduce uncertainty, and remain secure-preventing the costs of alignment by signaling ambiguity in the military, political, and eco- nomic sectors. This hedging concept is subsequently applied to a case study of Singapore, demonstrating that the island state is the quintessential hedger. In so doing, this article develops a falsifiable concept of hedging that enables such a strategy to be explicitly identified, and importantly, returns agency back to the other states amid intensifying Sino-US competition.
ISSN: 0020-8833
DOI: 10.1093/isq/sqac034
Schools: S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies 
Rights: © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Studies Association. All rights reserved. This article may be downloaded for personal use only. Any other use requires prior permission of the copyright holder. The Version of Record is available online at
Fulltext Permission: embargo_20240725
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
Appears in Collections:RSIS Journal Articles

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