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Title: 冷战时期英美官方在全球南方的流动影像生产(1946-1972):以马来亚制片组、香港电影制片组和亚洲影业公司为中心 = Official Production of Moving Images by UK and US in the Global South During the Cold War (1946-1972):The Case of the Malayan Film Unit, Hong Kong Film Unit and Asia Pictures
Authors: 周子恒 Zhou, Zi Heng
Keywords: Humanities
Issue Date: 2022
Publisher: Nanyang Technological University
Source: 周子恒 Zhou, Z. H. (2022). 冷战时期英美官方在全球南方的流动影像生产(1946-1972):以马来亚制片组、香港电影制片组和亚洲影业公司为中心 = Official Production of Moving Images by UK and US in the Global South During the Cold War (1946-1972):The Case of the Malayan Film Unit, Hong Kong Film Unit and Asia Pictures. Doctoral thesis, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
Abstract: The Cold War did not only witness the US-USSR confrontations and competition, but profoundly affected the political situations and cultural orientation of various regions of the world. Global South, as a political awareness, empowered the de-centralizing efforts in struggles against submission by peoples on the periphery of the global power structure. It also supplied non-aligned forces and weaker states, whose rights were deprived of by great powers, with Global South theoretical perspectives. With a focus on three film companies established and financed by the United Kingdom and the United States during the Cold War, namely, Asia Pictures, Hong Kong Film Unit, and Malayan Film Unit, this dissertation examines how the two countries managed to impart the idea of capitalist “freedom” and modernity to the Global South via images. Discussions of the three selected film companies in the dissertation do not only examine the textual contents of images, but also extend to the origins and evolvement of the establishment of the film companies, the social context of image production, as well as public reactions. By digging into the archives housed at Imperial War Museum (UK), The National Archives (UK), Central Intelligence Agency (USA), and the Hoover Institution Library & Archives (USA), and close reading the historical newspapers like the Straits Times and South China Morning Post, this dissertation aims to present the complexity and diversity of cultural intervention and political exploitation upon the Global South by the UK and US. In addition, the dissertation attempts to reconsider the true intention of the UK and US, namely, to sustain their local interest by way of rationalizing their behaviors. A revisit to narratives of “freedom” and “modernity” propagated by the UK and US during the Cold War would reveal that such narratives represent the exclusive Anglo-American model and standard of developmental path which ostracized possibilities of local diversity and historical reflection. To suit local political and cultural settings, the UK and US have adopted an elastic propaganda strategy and sustained their relationship for the maximum economic interest and ideological support. The observation of the official image production by the UK and US authorities in this dissertation thus complements the historical evolvement and cultural characteristics of localized image production in the Global South and expands the studies of cultural Cold War from the perspective of image propaganda. 冷战不仅是美苏之间的对抗与博弈,也深刻影响了世界各地区的政治局势与文化导向。全球南方作为一种政治意识,赋予了处于权力网络次要地位的人们寻找抗争压迫的“去中心化”力量。它为探讨权利受剥夺的不结盟地区和弱势国家在大国干预下的顺从与抵抗提供了新的理论视野。本文聚焦在冷战时期英美设立与资助的亚洲影业公司、香港电影制片组及马来亚制片组三个影像机构,结合全球南方文化视角,观察英美如何借由流动影像向全球南方地区传递资本主义“自由”思想与现代意识。本文对所选取的三个影像机构的讨论,不仅局限于流动影像文本内容的考察,并且延展到影像机构设立起源及嬗变过程,影像生产的社会背景与公众反响等方面。通过挖掘英国帝国战争博物馆、英国国家档案馆、美国中央情报局和胡佛研究所图书档案馆等官方第一手文献档案以及《海峡时报》、《南华早报》等历史报刊,本文希望探索冷战时期英美官方在全球南方的文化干预与权利剥削过程中表现出的复杂性与多样性,并借以思考英美如何合理化自身行为以掩盖其渴望延续在地利益的真实目的。重新审视冷战年代英美宣传时强调的“自由”与“现代化”的话语,不难发现它蕴藏了英美面向全球南方时展现出的示范化发展路径与统一标准,从而排除了当地多元文化与历史反省的可能性。为了适应当地的政治文化环境,英美在全球南方体现出动态多变的宣传策略,以赢得最大化的经济利益与意识形态方面支持,英美双方关系也在追寻共同利益的彼此协商中得以维系。本文对于英美官方流动影像的观照,厘清了全球南方在地化影像机构的历史流变与文化特征,以影像宣传的视角拓展了文化冷战研究版图。
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