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Title: Stabilisation/solidification of lead-contaminated soil by using ladle furnace slag and carbon dioxide
Authors: Xu, Bo
Yi, Yaolin
Keywords: Engineering::Civil engineering
Issue Date: 2022
Source: Xu, B. & Yi, Y. (2022). Stabilisation/solidification of lead-contaminated soil by using ladle furnace slag and carbon dioxide. Soils and Foundations, 62(5), 101205-.
Journal: Soils and Foundations 
Abstract: Global sustainable development faces challenges in greenhouse gas emission, consumption of non-renewable resource and energy, waste landfilling, and environmental pollution. Geotechnical engineering also faces similar challenges; for example, the use of cement and lime for stabilisation/solidification (S/S) of contaminated soil is associated with carbon dioxide (CO2) emission and consumption of limestone and energy. In this context, this study introduces a sustainable S/S method by using an industrial waste, ladle furnace slag (LFS), and a greenhouse gas, CO2, to replace common additives for S/S of lead (Pb)-contaminated soil. LFS was first mixed with Pb-contaminated soils and then CO2 was introduced into the soil for carbonation. The results showed that LFS-stabilised Pb-contaminated soils could achieve CO2 uptake up to 18% of LFS mass. After carbonation, the concentration of leached Pb from contaminated soils was reduced by three orders of magnitude than that without carbonation, demonstrating higher S/S efficacy than cement, lime, and magnesia. Additionally, this method can improve soil strength, as well as reduce non-renewable resource consumption, energy use, LFS landfilling, and additive cost.
ISSN: 0038-0806
DOI: 10.1016/j.sandf.2022.101205
Schools: School of Civil and Environmental Engineering 
Rights: © 2022 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of The Japanese Geotechnical Society. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
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