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Title: Aqueous outflow channels and its lymphatic association: a review
Authors: Narayanaswamy, Arun
Thakur, Sahil
Nongpiur, Monisha E.
Schmetterer, Leopold
Hong, Young-Kwon
Huang, Alex S.
Wong, Tina T.
Keywords: Science::Medicine
Issue Date: 2022
Source: Narayanaswamy, A., Thakur, S., Nongpiur, M. E., Schmetterer, L., Hong, Y., Huang, A. S. & Wong, T. T. (2022). Aqueous outflow channels and its lymphatic association: a review. Survey of Ophthalmology, 67(3), 659-674.
Project: DukeNUS-KP(Coll)/2018/0009A 
Journal: Survey of Ophthalmology 
Abstract: The human eye has a unique immune architecture and behavior. While the conjunctiva is known to have a well-defined lymphatic drainage system, the cornea, sclera, and uveal tissues were historically considered "alymphatic" and thought to be immune privileged. The very fact that the aqueous outflow channels carry a clear fluid (aqueous humor) along the outflow pathway makes it hard to ignore its lymphatic-like characteristics. The development of novel lymphatic lineage markers and expression of these markers in aqueous outflow channels and improved imaging capabilities has sparked a renewed interest in the study of ocular lymphatics. Ophthalmic lymphatic research has had a directional shift over the last decade, offering an exciting new physiological platform that needs further in-depth understanding. The evidence of a presence of distinct lymphatic channels in the human ciliary body is gaining significant traction. The uveolymphatic pathway is an alternative new route for aqueous outflow and adds a new dimension to pathophysiology and management of glaucoma. Developing novel animal models, markers, and non-invasive imaging tools to delineate the core anatomical structure and physiological functions may help pave some crucial pathways to understand disease pathophysiology and help develop novel targeted therapeutic approaches for glaucoma.
ISSN: 0039-6257
DOI: 10.1016/j.survophthal.2021.10.004
Schools: School of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology 
Organisations: Singapore Eye Research Institute 
Duke-NUS Medical School 
Research Centres: SERI-NTU Advanced Ocular Engineering Programme
Rights: © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fulltext Permission: none
Fulltext Availability: No Fulltext
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