Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://hdl.handle.net/10356/164220
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dc.contributor.authorZhao, Jiashangen_US
dc.contributor.authorLi, Jiaen_US
dc.contributor.authorLiu, Xiaohuien_US
dc.contributor.authorBannenberg, Lars J.en_US
dc.contributor.authorBruno, Annalisaen_US
dc.contributor.authorSavenije, Tom J.en_US
dc.date.accessioned2023-01-10T03:48:22Z-
dc.date.available2023-01-10T03:48:22Z-
dc.date.issued2022-
dc.identifier.citationZhao, J., Li, J., Liu, X., Bannenberg, L. J., Bruno, A. & Savenije, T. J. (2022). Charge carrier dynamics in co-evaporated MAPbI₃ with a gradient in composition. ACS Applied Energy Materials, 5(6), 7049-7055. https://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsaem.2c00664en_US
dc.identifier.issn2574-0962en_US
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/10356/164220-
dc.description.abstractCo-evaporation of metal halide perovskites by thermal evaporation is an attractive method since it does not require harmful solvents and enables precise control of the film thickness. Furthermore, the ability to manipulate the Fermi level allows the formation of a graded homojunction, providing interesting opportunities to improve the charge carrier collection efficiency. However, little is known about how these properties affect the charge carrier dynamics. In this work, the structural and optoelectronic properties of co-evaporated MAPbI3films varying in thickness (100, 400, and 750 nm) with a gradient in composition are analyzed. The X-ray diffraction patterns show that excess PbI2is only present in the thick layers. From X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth analysis, the I/Pb atomic ratio indicates methylammonium iodide deficiencies that become more prominent with thicker films, resulting in differently n-doped regions across the thick MAPbI3films. We suggest that due to these differently n-doped regimes, an internal electric field is formed. Side-selective time-resolved microwave photo conductivity measurements show an elongation of the charge carrier lifetimes on increasing thickness. These observations can be explained by the fact that excess carriers separate under the influence of the electric field, preventing rapid decay in the thick films.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Research Foundation (NRF)en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.relationNRF2015EWT-EIRP003-004en_US
dc.relationS18-1176-SCRPen_US
dc.relationNRF2018-ITC001-001en_US
dc.relation.ispartofACS Applied Energy Materialsen_US
dc.rights© 2022 The Authors. Published by American Chemical Society. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.en_US
dc.subjectScience::Chemistryen_US
dc.titleCharge carrier dynamics in co-evaporated MAPbI₃ with a gradient in compositionen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.contributor.researchEnergy Research Institute @ NTU (ERI@N)en_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1021/acsaem.2c00664-
dc.description.versionPublished versionen_US
dc.identifier.scopus2-s2.0-85131674314-
dc.identifier.issue6en_US
dc.identifier.volume5en_US
dc.identifier.spage7049en_US
dc.identifier.epage7055en_US
dc.subject.keywordsMetal Halide Perovskitesen_US
dc.subject.keywordsPhysical Vapor Depositionen_US
dc.description.acknowledgementJ.Z. acknowledges the CSC (China Scholarship Council) for funding, file no. 201906360169. J.L. and A.B. acknowledge funding by the National Research Foundation, Prime Minister’s Office, Singapore, under the Energy Innovation Research Program (grant nos: NRF2015EWT-EIRP003-004, Solar CRP: S18-1176-SCRP) and Intra-CREATE Collaborative grant (NRF2018-ITC001-001).en_US
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