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Title: Charge carrier dynamics in co-evaporated MAPbI₃ with a gradient in composition
Authors: Zhao, Jiashang
Li, Jia
Liu, Xiaohui
Bannenberg, Lars J.
Bruno, Annalisa
Savenije, Tom J.
Keywords: Science::Chemistry
Issue Date: 2022
Source: Zhao, J., Li, J., Liu, X., Bannenberg, L. J., Bruno, A. & Savenije, T. J. (2022). Charge carrier dynamics in co-evaporated MAPbI₃ with a gradient in composition. ACS Applied Energy Materials, 5(6), 7049-7055.
Project: NRF2015EWT-EIRP003-004 
Journal: ACS Applied Energy Materials 
Abstract: Co-evaporation of metal halide perovskites by thermal evaporation is an attractive method since it does not require harmful solvents and enables precise control of the film thickness. Furthermore, the ability to manipulate the Fermi level allows the formation of a graded homojunction, providing interesting opportunities to improve the charge carrier collection efficiency. However, little is known about how these properties affect the charge carrier dynamics. In this work, the structural and optoelectronic properties of co-evaporated MAPbI3films varying in thickness (100, 400, and 750 nm) with a gradient in composition are analyzed. The X-ray diffraction patterns show that excess PbI2is only present in the thick layers. From X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth analysis, the I/Pb atomic ratio indicates methylammonium iodide deficiencies that become more prominent with thicker films, resulting in differently n-doped regions across the thick MAPbI3films. We suggest that due to these differently n-doped regimes, an internal electric field is formed. Side-selective time-resolved microwave photo conductivity measurements show an elongation of the charge carrier lifetimes on increasing thickness. These observations can be explained by the fact that excess carriers separate under the influence of the electric field, preventing rapid decay in the thick films.
ISSN: 2574-0962
DOI: 10.1021/acsaem.2c00664
Research Centres: Energy Research Institute @ NTU (ERI@N) 
Rights: © 2022 The Authors. Published by American Chemical Society. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
Appears in Collections:ERI@N Journal Articles

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