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Title: A dimensionless analysis to select directed energy deposition process parameters for proper clad formation
Authors: Lim, Joel Choon Wee
Zhang, Yanmei
Huang, Sheng
Chan, Wai Lee
Keywords: Engineering::Mechanical engineering
Issue Date: 2022
Source: Lim, J. C. W., Zhang, Y., Huang, S. & Chan, W. L. (2022). A dimensionless analysis to select directed energy deposition process parameters for proper clad formation. International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology.
Journal: International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology 
Abstract: The growing interest in the directed energy deposition process to fabricate and repair thin wall structures has warranted a deeper understanding in the properties of the method’s basic building block: clad formation. In this study, clads obtained by depositing stainless steel 316L (SS316L) powder with three different process parameters, namely laser power, laser traverse speed, and powder mass flow rate, were investigated. Repeatability was ensured through a wide sample range per parameter. From the data measurement, the clads have an average hardness close to the typical 200 Hv of SS316L materials, indicating that Hall-Petch effect is dominant. The study also shows that: (i) Laser power is the most significant factor to clad depth, but has little influence on clad thickness. (ii) Laser traverse speed is the dominant parameter to clad height. (iii) Powder mass flow rate tends to compensate depth reduction with thickness gain, resulting in no noticeable effect on clad height. Increasing laser power was observed to be the most effective way to prevent clads from forming with zero dilution, an indicator to how well the printed clad is bonded to the substrate. A dimensionless analysis was derived from the set of SS316L clads. Through validation with different stainless steel datasets and extrapolation to a larger parametric range, the analysis was demonstrated to be able to facilitate the selection of process parameters to meet given requirements on the clad dimensions. As its application is intuitive, the analysis has the potential to be adopted as a standard preprinting tool that will increase success rate, thus improving the manufacturing turnaround time.
ISSN: 0268-3768
DOI: 10.1007/s00170-022-10393-y
Rights: © 2022 The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature. This is a post-peer-review, pre-copyedit version of an article published in International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology. The final authenticated version is available online at:
Fulltext Permission: embargo_20231224
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
Appears in Collections:MAE Journal Articles
SC3DP Journal Articles

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