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|離散的邊界：離散論述、土腔電影與《初戀紅豆冰》= The Frontiers of the diaspora: diaspora discourse, accented cinema and Ice Kacang Puppy Love
|许维贤 Hee, Wai Siam
|Visual arts and music::Film
|许维贤 Hee, W. S. (2018). 離散的邊界：離散論述、土腔電影與《初戀紅豆冰》= The Frontiers of the diaspora: diaspora discourse, accented cinema and Ice Kacang Puppy Love. 文化研究 Router: A Journal of Cultural Studies, 26, 59-96. https://dx.doi.org/10.6752/JCS.201807_(26).0003
|文化研究 Router: A Journal of Cultural Studies
|本文揭示馬華的離散論述不盡然是反本土化的書寫。作者回顧和檢視馬來西亞土 著霸權的源起和發展，以揭示它如何既構成了馬來西亞華人離散的邊界，亦建構 了以黃錦樹為代表的在台馬華離散論述。這套離散論述把馬華的本土化論述排除在 外，並傾向於把本土化與土著特權的原鄉迷思進行理論的連鎖。本文反思馬華本土化 的困境與其正當性，從離散論述探討作為土腔電影的《初戀紅豆冰》的土腔風格和地 方感性認同。此片在初始公映階段不被馬來西亞國家電影發展機構承認為大馬國產電 影，後來導演阿牛在台灣綜藝節目向馬來西亞政府「嗆聲」批評，再經過朝野政黨力 爭後，終於被承認為國產電影，免除繳交娛樂稅。阿牛既紮根大馬本土，亦跨界到台 灣和其他華人世界，借助離散或反離散的位置向馬來西亞政府嗆聲，從而得到承認， 整個事件即是去疆界化和再疆界化的旅程，說明了離散和本土化在馬華的共存共榮。 《初戀紅豆冰》對華巫關係的描述框架不停留在族群的規範框架，它創造性地轉換 成對中國化論述和父權制度的批判。此片也借助馬華的土腔風格和本土音樂創作，建 構大馬的地方感性認同，讓流動的本土性也能轉化成離散影像中的土腔口音，隨時可 以攜帶出境和入境，造就了離散的去疆界化。 This article demonstrates that Malaysian Chinese diaspora discourse is not completely anti-localization. It retraces and examines the origins and development of Malaysian Bumiputera privileges in order to demonstrate that not only does this constitute the frontier of the Malaysian Chinese diaspora, but also constructs a Taiwan-resident Malaysian Chinese diaspora discourse, emblematized by author and critic Ng Kim Chew. This diaspora discourse excludes Malaysian Chinese localization discourse, and tends to create a theoretical link between localization and the “original homeland” myth of Bumiputera privileges. This article reflects on the difficulties and legitimacy of Malaysian Chinese localization, employing Sinophone theory to explore the “accented style” and the identity of local sensibility evident in the accented cinema Ice Kacang Puppy Love. When first screened, this film was not regarded by state film body FINAS as a domestic Malaysian film. Only after director Ah Niu took the Malaysian government to task over this on a Taiwanese arts show did opposition and governing parties unite to protest this, eventually winning the film recognition as a domestic production exempt from the entertainment tax. Ah Niu is firmly rooted in Malaysian soil, but also steps into Taiwan and other Chinese societies. His use of a diaspora or against diaspora position to criticize the Malaysian government and gain recognition is a process of deterritorialization and reterritorialization, illustrating the way in which diaspora and localization co-exist and thrive in Malaysian Chinese society. Ice Kacang Puppy Love’s descriptive framework for Chinese-Malay relations is not confined to standard ethnic templates, but creatively morphs into a criticism of Sinification discourse and the patriarchy. It also uses a Malaysian Chinese “accented style” and local music composition to create an identity of local sensibility, enabling fluid local-ness to transform into a local accent within a diaspora film: it can be brought across frontiers at will, resulting in the deterritorialization of the diaspora.
|School of Humanities
|© 2018 Cultural Studies Association. All rights reserved. This paper was published in 文化研究 Router: A Journal of Cultural Studies and is made available with permission of Cultural Studies Association.
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Updated on Feb 28, 2024
Updated on Feb 28, 2024
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