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dc.contributor.authorCleland, Jenniferen_US
dc.contributor.authorGates, Laura J.en_US
dc.contributor.authorWaiter, Gordon D.en_US
dc.contributor.authorHo, Vincent B.en_US
dc.contributor.authorSchuwirth, Lamberten_US
dc.contributor.authorDurning, Stevenen_US
dc.identifier.citationCleland, J., Gates, L. J., Waiter, G. D., Ho, V. B., Schuwirth, L. & Durning, S. (2021). Even a little sleepiness influences neural activation and clinical reasoning in novices. Health Science Reports, 4(4), e406-.
dc.description.abstractBackground and aims: Sleepiness influences alertness and cognitive functioning and impacts many aspects of medical care, including clinical reasoning. However, dual processing theory suggests that sleepiness will impact clinical reasoning differently in different individual, depending on their level of experience with the given condition. Our aim, therefore, was to examine the association between clinical reasoning, neuroanatomical activation, and sleepiness in senior medical students. Methods: Our methodology replicated an earlier study but with novices rather than board-certified physicians. Eighteen final-year medical students answered validated multiple-choice questions (MCQs) during an fMRI scan. Each MCQ was projected in three phases: reading, answering, and reflection (modified think aloud). Echo-planar imaging (EPI) scans gave a time series that reflected blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal in each location (voxel) within the brain. Sleep data were collected via self-report (Epworth Sleepiness Scale) and actigraphy. These data were correlated with answer accuracy using Pearson correlation. Results: Analysis revealed an increased BOLD signal in the right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (P <.05) during reflection (Phase 3) associated with increased self-reported sleepiness (ESS) immediately before scanning. Covariate analysis also revealed that increased BOLD signal in the right supramarginal gyrus (P <.05) when reflecting (Phase 3) was associated with increased correct answer response time. Both patterns indicate effortful analytic (System 2) reasoning. Conclusion: Our findings that novices use System 2 thinking for clinical reasoning and even a little (perceived) sleepiness influences their clinical reasoning ability to suggest that the parameters for safe working may be different for novices (eg, junior doctors) and experienced physicians.en_US
dc.relation.ispartofHealth Science Reportsen_US
dc.rights© 2021 The Authors. Health Science Reports published by Wiley Periodicals LLC. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.en_US
dc.titleEven a little sleepiness influences neural activation and clinical reasoning in novicesen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.contributor.schoolLee Kong Chian School of Medicine (LKCMedicine)en_US
dc.description.versionPublished versionen_US
dc.subject.keywordsClinical Reasoningen_US
dc.description.acknowledgementThis study was funded by a grant from the Scottish Medical Education Research Consortium (SMERC).en_US
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