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Title: Holistic life-cycle investigation of alternative fuel – methanol
Authors: Neo, Jun Ti
Keywords: Engineering::Maritime studies
Issue Date: 2023
Publisher: Nanyang Technological University
Source: Neo, J. T. (2023). Holistic life-cycle investigation of alternative fuel – methanol. Final Year Project (FYP), Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
Project: MS36
Abstract: Global GHG emissions have become increasingly important for industries. CO2 emissions reached a new record high in 2021, and they are expected to rise even further in the future. Compared to other sectors, although the shipping industry does not contribute to the highest level of GHG emissions, the industry would emit more if there were no regulations to control vessel emissions. The IMO recognised the importance and urgency of establishing standards and regulations to control these emissions. Hence, various emission measures to assist the industry in reducing ship emissions were adopted over time. This paper examines the technical perspectives of future shipping with methanol fuel by evaluating the concerns encountered. In addition, this paper serves as a platform for research participants to discuss the feasibility of methanol as opposed to other alternative fuels. Primary and secondary findings were used as research methodologies to collect qualitative and quantitative data. Primary research was conducted using a questionnaire and interviews with maritime stakeholders with knowledge and experience in decarbonisation, while secondary research was conducted for cross-referencing, providing a thorough understanding of the issues confronting maritime stakeholders. The results of the questionnaire were analysed and discussed using statistical analysis. In addition, discussions on methanol's feasibility for future shipping were also conducted with the interviewees to gain a deeper understanding of industrial views. According to the findings, methanol is a feasible future marine fuel. Furthermore, the study discovered no significant technical challenges to adopting and using methanol fuels on existing and new vessels. Instead, respondents expressed technical concerns about the chemical processes involved in the methanol life cycle's production and recycling stages. Following that, the paper provided three recommendations pertaining to the challenges highlighted by respondents at each stage. These recommendations were made to improve the industry’s adoption rate of methanol fuels and are not limited to technical aspects. The recommendations include the development of new technologies, the establishment of industry standards, and the construction of methanol infrastructure for specific ports. To conclude the paper, four conclusions were drawn. First, methanol production increases the technical difficulty and production costs as it is a complex molecule. Second, retrofitting of existing fleet and newbuilds are simple as standards and guidelines are established. Third, due to a lack of funds, additional investments by shipping companies are not feasible. Fourth, methanol is feasible only if cost reduction is addressed at all stages of methanol production.
Schools: School of Civil and Environmental Engineering 
Fulltext Permission: restricted
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
Appears in Collections:CEE Student Reports (FYP/IA/PA/PI)

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