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dc.contributor.authorWan, Yanen_US
dc.contributor.authorZeng, Qiangen_US
dc.contributor.authorKim, Insupen_US
dc.contributor.authorShi, Pujiangen_US
dc.contributor.authorYoon, Yong-Jinen_US
dc.contributor.authorTay, Chor Yongen_US
dc.contributor.authorLee, Jong-Minen_US
dc.identifier.citationWan, Y., Zeng, Q., Kim, I., Shi, P., Yoon, Y., Tay, C. Y. & Lee, J. (2022). Ultrasonic-assisted tetrabromobisphenol A-bis-(2,3-dibromo-2-methylpropyl ether) extraction process from ABS polymer supported by machine learning. Environmental Technology and Innovation, 27, 102485-.
dc.description.abstractThe extensive use of electronic and electrical equipment and ever-increasing rate of renewal inevitably generate numerous e-waste plastics which need to be disposed of properly, and eliminating the brominated flame retardants (BFRs) present in them can significantly alleviate their environmental impact. In the present study, TBBPA-bis-(2,3-dibromo-2-methylpropyl ether) (TBBPA-DBMP), a novel tetrabromobisphenol A-derived BFR, was removed using an extraction process assisted by ultrasonic in alcohol extractants. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) achieved by support vector regression (SVR) was used to predict the optimum extraction conditions (extraction time, extraction temperature, liquid to solid ratio) in methanol and ethanol solvent, respectively. The maximum predicted extraction efficiencies of TBBPA-DBMP were 98.1% under the optimized conditions of 178 min, 180 mL/g, 66 °C in methanol and 99.5% under the optimized conditions of 150 min, 178 mL/g, 66 °C in ethanol. And the validity of predicted optimal extraction conditions was verified. The plastic matrix was capable of being recovered well after extraction (recovery rate > 90%). Moreover, shrinking core model was referred to conduct the kinetic analysis of the extraction, which demonstrates that the interface transfer and internal diffusion are the rate-controlling step in the extraction of TBBPA-DBMP in both methanol and ethanol extractants.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipMinistry of National Development (MND)en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Environmental Agency (NEA)en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Research Foundation (NRF)en_US
dc.relation.ispartofEnvironmental Technology and Innovationen_US
dc.rights© 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (
dc.subjectEngineering::Chemical engineeringen_US
dc.titleUltrasonic-assisted tetrabromobisphenol A-bis-(2,3-dibromo-2-methylpropyl ether) extraction process from ABS polymer supported by machine learningen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Chemical and Biomedical Engineeringen_US
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Materials Science and Engineeringen_US
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Biological Sciencesen_US
dc.contributor.researchEnergy Research Institute @ NTU (ERI@N)en_US
dc.description.versionPublished versionen_US
dc.subject.keywordsBrominated Flame Retardanten_US
dc.subject.keywordsSupport Vector Regressionen_US
dc.description.acknowledgementThis work was supported by the National Research Foundation, Prime Minister’s Office, Singapore, the Ministry of National Development, Singapore, and National Environment Agency, Ministry of Sustainability and the Environment, Singapore under the Closing the Waste Loop R&D Initiative as part of the Urban Solutions & Sustainability – Integration Fund (Award No. USS-IF-2018-4).en_US
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