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dc.contributor.authorZou, Jieen_US
dc.contributor.authorSun, Aixinen_US
dc.contributor.authorLong, Chengen_US
dc.contributor.authorMohammad Aliannejadien_US
dc.contributor.authorKanoulas, Evangelosen_US
dc.identifier.citationZou, J., Sun, A., Long, C., Mohammad Aliannejadi & Kanoulas, E. (2023). Asking clarifying questions: to benefit or to disturb users in web search?. Information Processing and Management, 60(2), 103176-.
dc.description.abstractModern information-seeking systems are becoming more interactive, mainly through asking Clarifying Questions (CQs) to refine users’ information needs. System-generated CQs may be of different qualities. However, the impact of asking multiple CQs of different qualities in a search session remains underexplored. Given the multi-turn nature of conversational information-seeking sessions, it is critical to understand and measure the impact of CQs of different qualities, when they are posed in various orders. In this paper, we conduct a user study on CQ quality trajectories, i.e., asking CQs of different qualities in chronological order. We aim to investigate to what extent the trajectory of CQs of different qualities affects user search behavior and satisfaction, on both query-level and session-level. Our user study is conducted with 89 participants as search engine users. Participants are asked to complete a set of Web search tasks. We find that the trajectory of CQs does affect the way users interact with Search Engine Result Pages (SERPs), e.g., a preceding high-quality CQ prompts the depth users to interact with SERPs, while a preceding low-quality CQ prevents such interaction. Our study also demonstrates that asking follow-up high-quality CQs improves the low search performance and user satisfaction caused by earlier low-quality CQs. In addition, only showing high-quality CQs while hiding other CQs receives better gains with less effort. That is, always showing all CQs may be risky and low-quality CQs do disturb users. Based on observations from our user study, we further propose a transformer-based model to predict which CQs to ask, to avoid disturbing users. In short, our study provides insights into the effects of trajectory of asking CQs, and our results will be helpful in designing more effective and enjoyable search clarification systems.en_US
dc.relation.ispartofInformation Processing and Managementen_US
dc.rights© 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.en_US
dc.subjectEngineering::Computer science and engineeringen_US
dc.titleAsking clarifying questions: to benefit or to disturb users in web search?en_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Computer Science and Engineeringen_US
dc.contributor.researchSingtel Cognitive and Artificial Intelligence Lab for Enterprises@NTUen_US
dc.subject.keywordsUser Studyen_US
dc.subject.keywordsInformation-Seeking Systemsen_US
dc.description.acknowledgementThis study is supported under the RIE2020 Industry Alignment Fund – Industry Collaboration Projects (IAF-ICP) Funding Initiative, as well as cash and in-kind contribution from Singapore Telecommunications Limited (Singtel), through Singtel Cognitive and Artificial Intelligence Lab for Enterprises (SCALE@NTU). This study is also supported by the NWO Smart Culture - Big Data/Digital Humanities (314-99-301), the NWO Innovational Research Incentives Scheme Vidi (016.Vidi.189.039), and the H2020- EU.3.4. - SOCIETAL CHALLENGES - Smart, Green, And Integrated Transport (814961).en_US
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