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dc.contributor.authorBairoliya, Sakchamen_US
dc.contributor.authorGoel, Apoorvaen_US
dc.contributor.authorMukherjee, Manishaen_US
dc.contributor.authorKoh, Jonas Zhi Xiangen_US
dc.contributor.authorCao, Binen_US
dc.identifier.citationBairoliya, S., Goel, A., Mukherjee, M., Koh, J. Z. X. & Cao, B. (2022). Monochloramine induces release of DNA and RNA from bacterial cells: quantification, sequencing analyses, and implications. Environmental Science & Technology, 56(22), 15791-15804.
dc.description.abstractMonochloramine (MCA) is a widely used secondary disinfectant to suppress microbial growth in drinking water distribution systems. In monochloraminated drinking water, a significant amount of extracellular DNA (eDNA) has been reported, which has many implications ranging from obscuring DNA-based drinking water microbiome analyses to posing potential health concerns. To address this, it is imperative for us to know the origin of the eDNA in drinking water. Using Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a model organism, we report for the first time that MCA induces the release of nucleic acids from both biofilms and planktonic cells. Upon exposure to 2 mg/L MCA, massive release of DNA from suspended cells in both MilliQ water and 0.9% NaCl was directly visualized using live cell imaging in a CellASIC ONIX2 microfluidic system. Exposing established biofilms to MCA also resulted in DNA release from the biofilms, which was confirmed by increased detection of eDNA in the effluent. Intriguingly, massive release of RNA was also observed, and the extracellular RNA (eRNA) was also found to persist in water for days. Sequencing analyses of the eDNA revealed that it could be used to assemble the whole genome of the model organism, while in the water, certain fragments of the genome were more persistent than others. RNA sequencing showed that the eRNA contains non-coding RNA and mRNA, implying its role as a possible signaling molecule in environmental systems and a snapshot of the past metabolic state of the bacterial cells.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipMinistry of Education (MOE)en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Research Foundation (NRF)en_US
dc.relation.ispartofEnvironmental Science & Technologyen_US
dc.rights© 2022 American Chemical Society. All rights reserved.en_US
dc.subjectEngineering::Civil engineeringen_US
dc.titleMonochloramine induces release of DNA and RNA from bacterial cells: quantification, sequencing analyses, and implicationsen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Civil and Environmental Engineeringen_US
dc.contributor.schoolInterdisciplinary Graduate School (IGS)en_US
dc.contributor.researchSingapore Centre for Environmental Life Sciences and Engineering (SCELSE)en_US
dc.subject.keywordsExtracellular DNAen_US
dc.description.acknowledgementThis research was supported by the National Research Foundation (NRF), Singapore, under its NERC-NRF Joint Grant Call (award no. NRF-NERC-SEAP-2020-02 to B.C.) and by the NRF and Ministry of Education Singapore under its Research Centre of Excellence Programme, Singapore Centre for Environmental Life Sciences Engineering (M4330005.C70 to B.C.), Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.en_US
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