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|Two-stage nested simulation of tail risk measurement: a likelihood ratio approach
Hardy, Mary R.
|Dang, O., Feng, M. & Hardy, M. R. (2023). Two-stage nested simulation of tail risk measurement: a likelihood ratio approach. Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, 108, 1-24. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.insmatheco.2022.10.002
|Insurance: Mathematics and Economics
|Estimating tail risk measures is an important task in many financial and actuarial applications and often requires nested simulations, with the outer simulations representing real world scenarios, and the inner simulations typically used for risk neutral pricing or conditional risk measurement. The standard nested simulation method is highly flexible, able to incorporate complex asset models and exotic payoff structures, but it is also computationally highly burdensome, particularly in a multi-period setting, when inner simulation paths are required at each time step of each outer level scenario. In this study, we propose and analyze a two-stage simulation procedure that efficiently estimates the conditional tail expectation of cost of a dynamic hedging program for a Variable Annuity Guaranteed Minimum Withdrawal Benefit (GMWB), under a multi-period nested simulation. In each of the two stages, the method re-uses the same set of inner level simulation paths for each outer scenario at each time point, using a likelihood ratio method to re-weight the probabilities of each individual path for the different outer scenarios. Our numerical study shows that our two-stage, likelihood ratio weighted procedure can offer a very significant improvement in efficiency, of the order of 95% as measured by the RMSE, compared with a standard nested simulation with the same computational cost.
|Nanyang Business School
|© 2022 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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