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dc.contributor.authorYun, Jeonghunen_US
dc.contributor.authorLi, Zongkangen_US
dc.contributor.authorMiao, Xinwenen_US
dc.contributor.authorLi, Xiaoyaen_US
dc.contributor.authorLee, Jae Yoonen_US
dc.contributor.authorZhao, Wentingen_US
dc.contributor.authorLee, Seok Wooen_US
dc.identifier.citationYun, J., Li, Z., Miao, X., Li, X., Lee, J. Y., Zhao, W. & Lee, S. W. (2023). A tear-based battery charged by biofuel for smart contact lenses. Nano Energy, 110, 108344-.
dc.description.abstractSmart contact lenses developed for medical and personal applications will require miniaturized power supplies, with integrated batteries providing promising options. However, charging batteries in small wearable devices is challenging because it is difficult to transfer electrical power through a miniaturized wired connection or wireless transmission unit. Herein, we develop safe, tear-based batteries integrated into contact lenses that are charged by biofuel during their storage. Enzymatic reactions of glucose oxidase and self-reduction of conducting polymer are utilized to charge the cathode and anode, respectively. The electrodes are embedded into a contact lens and discharged in an artificial tear solution followed by charging in a glucose solution via a bio-reaction (called bio-charging). The bio-charging battery shows a discharging capacity of 45 μA cm−2 and a maximum power of 201 μW cm−2, with its performance verified over 15 cycles. The bio-chargeable battery can also be charged conventionally by an external power supply.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipMinistry of Education (MOE)en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNanyang Technological Universityen_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Research Foundation (NRF)en_US
dc.relationNRF2019-NRF-ANR052 KineHarvesten_US
dc.relation.ispartofNano Energyen_US
dc.rights© 2023 Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved. This paper was published in Nano Energy and is made available with permission of Elsevier Ltd.en_US
dc.subjectEngineering::Electrical and electronic engineeringen_US
dc.titleA tear-based battery charged by biofuel for smart contact lensesen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Electrical and Electronic Engineeringen_US
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnologyen_US
dc.contributor.researchRolls-Royce@NTU Corporate Laben_US
dc.description.versionSubmitted/Accepted versionen_US
dc.description.acknowledgementS.W.L. acknowledges the support by the National Research Foundation, Prime Minister’s Office, Singapore under its NRF-ANR Joint Programme (NRF2019-NRF-ANR052 KineHarvest). W.Z. acknowledges the support by the Singapore Ministry of Education (MOE) (W. Zhao, RG112/20, and RG95/21) and the NTU Start-up Grant (W. Zhao).en_US
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