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Title: Strong second-harmonic generation by sublattice polarization in non-uniformly strained monolayer graphene
Authors: Lu, Kunze
Luo, Manlin
Gao, Weibo
Wang, Qi Jie
Sun, Hao
Nam, Donguk
Keywords: Science::Physics
Engineering::Electrical and electronic engineering
Issue Date: 2023
Source: Lu, K., Luo, M., Gao, W., Wang, Q. J., Sun, H. & Nam, D. (2023). Strong second-harmonic generation by sublattice polarization in non-uniformly strained monolayer graphene. Nature Communications, 14(1), 2580-.
Project: RG115/21 
NRF-CRP19- 2017-01 
Journal: Nature Communications 
Abstract: Despite the potential of graphene for building a variety of quantum photonic devices, its centrosymmetric nature forbids the observation of second harmonic generation (SHG) for developing second-order nonlinear devices. To activate SHG in graphene, extensive research efforts have been directed towards disrupting graphene's inversion symmetry using external stimuli like electric fields. However, these methods fail to engineer graphene's lattice symmetry, which is the root cause of the forbidden SHG. Here, we harness strain engineering to directly manipulate graphene's lattice arrangement and induce sublattice polarization to activate SHG. Surprisingly, the SHG signal is boosted 50-fold at low temperatures, which can be explained by resonant transitions between strain-induced pseudo-Landau levels. The second-order susceptibility of strained graphene is found to be larger than that of hexagonal boron nitride with intrinsic broken inversion symmetry. Our demonstration of strong SHG in strained graphene offers promising possibilities for developing high-efficiency nonlinear devices for integrated quantum circuits.
ISSN: 2041-1723
DOI: 10.1038/s41467-023-38344-5
Schools: School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences 
School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering 
Rights: © The Author(s) 2023. Open Access. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit licenses/by/4.0/.
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
Appears in Collections:EEE Journal Articles
SPMS Journal Articles

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