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Title: Fiddling the twiddle constants - fault injection analysis of the number theoretic transform
Authors: Ravi, Prasanna
Yang, Bolin
Bhasin, Shivam
Zhang, Fan
Chattopadhyay, Anupam
Keywords: Engineering::Computer science and engineering
Issue Date: 2023
Source: Ravi, P., Yang, B., Bhasin, S., Zhang, F. & Chattopadhyay, A. (2023). Fiddling the twiddle constants - fault injection analysis of the number theoretic transform. IACR Transactions On Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems, 2023(2), 447-481.
Project: NRF2018NCR-NCR002-0001 
Journal: IACR Transactions on Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems 
Abstract: In this work, we present the first fault injection analysis of the Number Theoretic Transform (NTT). The NTT is an integral computation unit, widely used for polynomial multiplication in several structured lattice-based key encapsulation mechanisms (KEMs) and digital signature schemes. We identify a critical single fault vulnerability in the NTT, which severely reduces the entropy of its output. This in turn enables us to perform a wide-range of attacks applicable to lattice-based KEMs as well as signature schemes. In particular, we demonstrate novel key recovery and message recovery attacks targeting the key generation and encryption procedure of Kyber KEM. We also propose novel existential forgery attacks targeting deterministic and probabilistic signing procedure of Dilithium, followed by a novel verification bypass attack targeting its verification procedure. All proposed exploits are demonstrated with high success rate using electromagnetic fault injection on optimized implementations of Kyber and Dilithium, from the open-source pqm4 library on the ARM Cortex-M4 microcontroller. We also demonstrate that our proposed attacks are capable of bypassing concrete countermeasures against existing fault attacks on lattice-based KEMs and signature schemes. We believe our work motivates the need for more research towards development of countermeasures for the NTT against fault injection attacks.
ISSN: 2569-2925
DOI: 10.46586/tches.v2023.i2.447-481
Schools: School of Computer Science and Engineering 
Rights: © 2023 Prasanna Ravi, Bolin Yang, Shivam Bhasin, Fan Zhang, Anupam Chattopadhyay. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
Appears in Collections:SCSE Journal Articles

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