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dc.contributor.authorLin, Deyuen_US
dc.contributor.authorLin, Zihaoen_US
dc.contributor.authorKong, Lingheen_US
dc.contributor.authorGuan, Yong Liangen_US
dc.identifier.citationLin, D., Lin, Z., Kong, L. & Guan, Y. L. (2023). CMSTR: a constrained minimum spanning tree based routing protocol for wireless sensor networks. Ad Hoc Networks, 146, 103160-.
dc.description.abstractHow to extend the network lifetime with given limited energy budget is always one of the main concerns in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). However, imbalanced energy consumption and overlong intra-cluster communication paths are prevalent in the hierarchical routing protocols, which shortens the network lifetime inevitably. To this end, an energy-efficient routing Protocol based on Constrained Minimum Spanning Tree (CMSTR) is proposed in this paper. To be specific, a new multichain routing scheme to balance the energy consumption for intra-cluster communications is presented. Based on the multichain routing scheme, the problem of establishing intra-cluster routing is transformed into a shortest Hamiltonian path problem on the basis of a graph-theoretic analysis model, which is solved through a Constrained Minimum Spanning Tree (CMST) algorithm proposed in this paper, with the aim to obtain the initial path for intra-cluster communications. In order to shorten the initial path length to obtain higher energy-efficient chain routes, a Neighbor Node Replacement (NNR) algorithm and a Link Intersection Detection and Elimination (LIDE) algorithm are proposed, in which the problem of potential long links and intersections is to be effectively alleviated. With shorter chain routes, unnecessary intra-cluster communication energy depletion can be reduced accordingly. In order to evaluate the performance of CMSTR, extensive simulation experiments are conducted. The results show that CMSTR can greatly prolong the network lifetime with regard to the metrics of FND and HND. To be specific, compared with LEACH, R-LEACH, and DCMSTR, the value of FND increased by 800%, 540% and 57%, that of HND increased by 322%, 286% and 22%, and overall network lifetime (AND) increased by 29%, 10% and 5%, respectively. Besides, CMSTR has a stable and lowest packet loss percentage (0.4%). In summary, CMSTR has excellent performance in terms of energy efficiency and network stability.en_US
dc.relation.ispartofAd Hoc Networksen_US
dc.rights© 2023 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.en_US
dc.subjectEngineering::Electrical and electronic engineeringen_US
dc.titleCMSTR: a constrained minimum spanning tree based routing protocol for wireless sensor networksen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Electrical and Electronic Engineeringen_US
dc.subject.keywordsEnergy Efficienten_US
dc.subject.keywordsShortest Hamiltonian Pathen_US
dc.description.acknowledgementThis paper is supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (61962019), and in part by Natural Science Foundation of Jiangxi Province (20224BAB212016), China Scholarship Council (No. 202106825021), and Natural Science Foundation of Shaanxi Province (2020NY-175).en_US
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