Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://hdl.handle.net/10356/171716
Title: Early in vivo osteogenic and inflammatory response of 3D printed polycaprolactone/carbon nanotube/hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate composite scaffolds
Authors: Nalesso, Paulo Roberto Lopes
Vedovatto, Matheus
Gregório, Julia Eduarda Schneider
Huang, Boyang
Vyas, Cian
Santamaria-Jr, Milton
Bártolo, Paulo
Caetano, Guilherme Ferreira
Keywords: Engineering::Mechanical engineering
Issue Date: 2023
Source: Nalesso, P. R. L., Vedovatto, M., Gregório, J. E. S., Huang, B., Vyas, C., Santamaria-Jr, M., Bártolo, P. & Caetano, G. F. (2023). Early in vivo osteogenic and inflammatory response of 3D printed polycaprolactone/carbon nanotube/hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate composite scaffolds. Polymers, 15(13), 2952-. https://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym15132952
Journal: Polymers 
Abstract: The development of advanced biomaterials and manufacturing processes to fabricate biologically and mechanically appropriate scaffolds for bone tissue is a significant challenge. Polycaprolactone (PCL) is a biocompatible and degradable polymer used in bone tissue engineering, but it lacks biofunctionalization. Bioceramics, such as hydroxyapatite (HA) and β tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), which are similar chemically to native bone, can facilitate both osteointegration and osteoinduction whilst improving the biomechanics of a scaffold. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) display exceptional electrical conductivity and mechanical properties. A major limitation is the understanding of how PCL-based scaffolds containing HA, TCP, and CNTs behave in vivo in a bone regeneration model. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of three-dimensional (3D) printed PCL-based composite scaffolds containing CNTs, HA, and β-TCP during the initial osteogenic and inflammatory response phase in a critical bone defect rat model. Gene expression related to early osteogenesis, the inflammatory phase, and tissue formation was evaluated using quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). Tissue formation and mineralization were assessed by histomorphometry. The CNT+HA/TCP group presented higher expression of osteogenic genes after seven days. The CNT+HA and CNT+TCP groups stimulated higher gene expression for tissue formation and mineralization, and pro- and anti-inflammatory genes after 14 and 30 days. Moreover, the CNT+TCP and CNT+HA/TCP groups showed higher gene expressions related to M1 macrophages. The association of CNTs with ceramics at 10wt% (CNT+HA/TCP) showed lower expressions of inflammatory genes and higher osteogenic, presenting a positive impact and balanced cell signaling for early bone formation. The association of CNTs with both ceramics promoted a minor inflammatory response and faster bone tissue formation.
URI: https://hdl.handle.net/10356/171716
ISSN: 2073-4360
DOI: 10.3390/polym15132952
Schools: School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering 
Research Centres: Singapore Centre for 3D Printing 
Rights: © 2023 The authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ 4.0/).
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
Appears in Collections:SC3DP Journal Articles

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